Last update: May 22, 2019

Vitamin B12 Substances

Very Low Risk for breastfeeding


Safe. Compatible.
Not risky for breastfeeding or infant.

Vitamin B12 exists naturally in milk at a concentration of 1 nanogram / mL (Sauberan 2019; range: 0.3 to 3 ng / mL). Maternal supplementation with cyanocobalamin barely increases milk levels in well-nourished women (Sandberg 1981), but it does improve the levels in women of low socioeconomic status (Sneed 1981). The concentration in colostrum is up to 28 times higher than that of mature milk.
The daily requirements for Vitamin B12 are 2.4 micrograms (Sauberan 2019) and increase to 2.8 micrograms daily during breastfeeding. Foods rich in vitamin B12 are meat, offal, eggs, dairy products, salmon, sardines, clams and fortified cereals.

With a varied and balanced diet no vitamin supplements are needed, but B12 deficiency has been observed in the plasma and milk of women with strict vegetarian diets (vegans), malabsorptive diseases (eg, Crohn's disease, celiac disease), bariatric surgery, poor nutritional status, pernicious anemia, low socio-economic status and in cases of natural disasters or wars. There are numerous publications showing that infants of these mothers are at high risk of disease due to vitamin B12 deficiency, which can lead to anemia, stunting and psychomotor retardation.

"Flash pasteurization" applied to breast milk of mothers who are HIV+ does not decrease vitamin B12 concentration.

American Academy of Pediatrics: medication usually compatible with breastfeeding (AAP 2001).


See below the information of this related product:

Alternatives

We do not have alternatives for Vitamin B12 Substances since it is relatively safe.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Group

Vitamin B12 Substances belongs to this group or family:

Tradenames

Main tradenames from several countries containing Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition:

  • Bago B1 B6 B12™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Bedoyecta tri™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Cromatonbic B12
  • Cyanokit
  • Elevit™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Folyoben™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Fortical (Mexico)™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • GyneFer™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Hidroxil B12 B6 B1™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Inzitan™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Isopto B 12
  • Megamilbedoce
  • Multibionta Complex™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Nervobion™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Neurobion™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Neuroflax (Mexico)™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Optovite B12
  • Polper Vascular™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Suplefol™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Supradyn Forte™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Trofalgon™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Yodocefol™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Yoduk Complex™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition
  • Yofolvit™. Contains other elements than Vitamin B12 Substances in its composition

Pharmacokinetics

Variable Value Unit
Molecular weight 1344 - 2791 daltons
Tmax 2 hours
M/P ratio 1 -

References

  1. Sauberan JB. High-Dose Vitamins. Breastfeed Med. 2019 Apr 30. Abstract
  2. Hampel D, Allen LH. Analyzing B-vitamins in Human Milk: Methodological Approaches. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Abstract
  3. Abe SK, Balogun OO, Ota E, Takahashi K, Mori R. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients for breastfeeding women for improving outcomes for the mother and baby. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Abstract
  4. Ohyama W, Yamaoka M, Yokoi K, Iwahashi M, Inage Y, Arihiro S, Koganei K, Sugita A, Ida H, Akiyama M. [Maternal Crohn's disease-related vitamin B12 deficient megaloblastic anemia in an infant]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2016 Abstract
  5. Bae S, West AA, Yan J, Jiang X, Perry CA, Malysheva O, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Caudill MA. Vitamin B-12 Status Differs among Pregnant, Lactating, and Control Women with Equivalent Nutrient Intakes. J Nutr. 2015 Abstract
  6. Akcaboy M, Malbora B, Zorlu P, Altınel E, Oguz MM, Senel S. Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants. Indian J Pediatr. 2015 Abstract
  7. Jain R, Singh A, Mittal M, Talukdar B. Vitamin B12 deficiency in children: a treatable cause of neurodevelopmental delay. J Child Neurol. 2015 Abstract
  8. Ares Segura S, Arena Ansótegui J, Díaz-Gómez NM; en representación del Comité de Lactancia Materna de la Asociación Española de Pediatría. La importancia de la nutrición materna durante la lactancia, ¿necesitan las madres lactantes suplementos nutricionales? [The importance of maternal nutrition during breastfeeding: Do breastfeeding mothers need nutritional supplements?] An Pediatr (Barc). 2015 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  9. Van Noolen L, Nguyen-Morel MA, Faure P, Corne C. Don't forget methylmalonic acid quantification in symptomatic exclusively breast-fed infants. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Abstract
  10. Dong C, Ge P, Ren X, Zhao X, Fan H, Yin SA, Weiderpass E. Evaluating the micronutrient status of women of child-bearing age living in the rural disaster areas one year after Wenchuan Earthquake. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014 Abstract
  11. Kocaoglu C, Akin F, Caksen H, Böke SB, Arslan S, Aygün S. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother. J Health Popul Nutr. 2014 Abstract
  12. Duggan C, Srinivasan K, Thomas T, Samuel T, Rajendran R, Muthayya S, Finkelstein JL, Lukose A, Fawzi W, Allen LH, Bosch RJ, Kurpad AV. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status. J Nutr. 2014 Abstract
  13. Neumann CG, Oace SM, Chaparro MP, Herman D, Drorbaugh N, Bwibo NO. Low vitamin B12 intake during pregnancy and lactation and low breastmilk vitamin 12 content in rural Kenyan women consuming predominantly maize diets. Food Nutr Bull. 2013 Abstract
  14. Shibata K, Fukuwatari T, Sasaki S, Sano M, Suzuki K, Hiratsuka C, Aoki A, Nagai C. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  15. Demir N, Koc A, Üstyol L, Peker E, Abuhandan M. Clinical and neurological findings of severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy and importance of early diagnosis and treatment. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Abstract
  16. Roumeliotis N, Dix D, Lipson A. Vitamin B(12) deficiency in infants secondary to maternal causes. CMAJ. 2012 Abstract
  17. Guez S, Chiarelli G, Menni F, Salera S, Principi N, Esposito S. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy. BMC Pediatr. 2012 Abstract
  18. Quentin C, Huybrechts S, Rozen L, De Laet C, Demulder A, Ferster A. Vitamin B12 deficiency in a 9-month-old boy. Eur J Pediatr. 2012 Abstract
  19. Rodrigues V, Dias A, Brito MJ, Galvão I, Ferreira GC. Severe megaloblastic anaemia in an infant. BMJ Case Rep. 2011 Abstract
  20. Ohman I, De Flon P, Tomson T. Pregabalin kinetics in the neonatal period, and during lactation. Epilepsia. 52 (Suppl 6):249-50 (poster 824). 2011 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  21. Hall Moran V, Lowe N, Crossland N, Berti C, Cetin I, Hermoso M, Koletzko B, Dykes F. Nutritional requirements during lactation. Towards European alignment of reference values: the EURRECA network. Matern Child Nutr. 2010 Oct;6 Suppl 2:39-54. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  22. Honzik T, Adamovicova M, Smolka V, Magner M, Hruba E, Zeman J. Clinical presentation and metabolic consequences in 40 breastfed infants with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency--what have we learned? Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2010 Abstract
  23. Mariani A, Chalies S, Jeziorski E, Ludwig C, Lalande M, Rodière M. [Consequences of exclusive breast-feeding in vegan mother newborn--case report]. Arch Pediatr. 2009 Abstract
  24. Roed C, Skovby F, Lund AM. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Abstract
  25. Erdeve O, Arsan S, Atasay B, Ileri T, Uysal Z. A breast-fed newborn with megaloblastic anemia-treated with the vitamin B12 supplementation of the mother. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009 Abstract
  26. Celiker MY, Chawla A. Congenital B12 deficiency following maternal gastric bypass. J Perinatol. 2009 Abstract
  27. Yenicesu I. Pancytopenia due to vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast-fed infant. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008 Abstract
  28. Israel-Ballard KA, Abrams BF, Coutsoudis A, Sibeko LN, Cheryk LA, Chantry CJ. Vitamin content of breast milk from HIV-1-infected mothers before and after flash-heat treatment. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Abstract
  29. Fadyl H, Inoue S. Combined B12 and iron deficiency in a child breast-fed by a vegetarian mother. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007 Abstract
  30. Lücke T, Korenke GC, Poggenburg I, Bentele KH, Das AM, Hartmann H. [Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency: cause for neurological symptoms in infancy]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2007 Abstract
  31. Ramlau-Hansen CH, Møller UK, Henriksen TB, Nexø E, Møller J. Folate and vitamin B12 in relation to lactation: a 9-month postpartum follow-up study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Abstract
  32. Baatenburg de Jong R, Bekhof J, Roorda R, Zwart P. Severe nutritional vitamin deficiency in a breast-fed infant of a vegan mother. Eur J Pediatr. 2005 Abstract
  33. Wagnon J, Cagnard B, Bridoux-Henno L, Tourtelier Y, Grall JY, Dabadie A. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2005 Abstract
  34. Casella EB, Valente M, de Navarro JM, Kok F. Vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy as a cause of developmental regression. Brain Dev. 2005 Abstract
  35. Codazzi D, Sala F, Parini R, Langer M. Coma and respiratory failure in a child with severe vitamin B(12) deficiency. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Abstract
  36. Weiss R, Fogelman Y, Bennett M. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant associated with a maternal deficiency and a strict vegetarian diet. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004 Abstract
  37. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Neurologic impairment in children associated with maternal dietary deficiency of cobalamin--Georgia, 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Abstract
  38. AAP - American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep;108(3):776-89. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  39. Casterline JE, Allen LH, Ruel MT. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is very prevalent in lactating Guatemalan women and their infants at three months postpartum. J Nutr. 1997 Abstract
  40. Allen LH, Rosado JL, Casterline JE, Martinez H, Lopez P, Muñoz E, Black AK. Vitamin B-12 deficiency and malabsorption are highly prevalent in rural Mexican communities. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Abstract
  41. Monfort-Gouraud M, Bongiorno A, Le Gall MA, Badoual J. [Severe megaloblastic anemia in child breast fed by a vegetarian mother]. Ann Pediatr (Paris). 1993 Abstract
  42. Specker BL, Black A, Allen L, Morrow F. Vitamin B-12: low milk concentrations are related to low serum concentrations in vegetarian women and to methylmalonic aciduria in their infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Abstract
  43. McPhee AJ, Davidson GP, Leahy M, Beare T. Vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast fed infant. Arch Dis Child. 1988 Abstract
  44. Herbert V. Recommended dietary intakes (RDI) of vitamin B-12 in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987 Abstract
  45. Sklar R. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency in a breast-fed infant of a vegan-diet mother. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1986 Abstract
  46. Sandberg DP, Begley JA, Hall CA. The content, binding, and forms of vitamin B12 in milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Abstract
  47. Sneed SM, Zane C, Thomas MR. The effects of ascorbic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid supplementation on the breast milk and maternal nutritional status of low socioeconomic lactating women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Abstract
  48. Samson RR, McClelland DB. Vitamin B12 in human colostrum and milk. Quantitation of the vitamin and its binder and the uptake of bound vitamin B12 by intestinal bacteria. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1980 Abstract
  49. Thomas MR, Sneed SM, Wei C, Nail PA, Wilson M, Sprinkle EE 3rd. The effects of vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin on the breast milk and maternal status of well-nourished women at 6 months postpartum. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Abstract
  50. BAKER SJ, JACOB E, RAJAN KT, SWAMINATHAN SP. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in pregnancy and the puerperium. Br Med J. 1962 Abstract

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