Last update: June 12, 2019
Moderately safe. Probably compatible.
Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended.
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An alkaloid derived from ephedra.
It has sympathomimetic properties with direct and indirect effects on adrenergic receptors.
Used parenterally to treat hypotension derived from spinal or epidural anesthesia due to its peripheral vasoconstrictor effects and improvement of heart tone.
Used orally as a bronchodilator and nasal decongestant mixed in preparations for colds, bronchitis and asthma.
Used illegaly as a psychostimulant and for weight loss, with serious health risks (van der Hoof 2002, Gruber 1998).
Since the last update we have not found published data on its excretion in breast milk.
Its large volume of distribution makes it unlikely it will pass into milk in significant amounts.
After a cesarean section with epidural anesthesia and use of ephedrine there were no side effects in 100 newborns; the time of initial breastfeeding was not delayed with respect to newborns after cesareans under general anesthesia (Havas 2013). The use of ephedrine during delivery or cesarean section is not contraindicated with the early initiation of breastfeeding: as well as the unlikely excretion in breast milk there is a low amount of colostrum obtained by the newborn in the first hours of life.
It may be desirable to minimize the continued use of oral preparations for colds/bronchitis which contain ephedrine since a case of crying, irritability and insomnia has been reported in a 3-month-old infant whose mother was taking a medication containing d-isoephedrine and dexbrompheniramine (Mortimer 1977).
Simple preparations (a single active ingredient per drug) are preferable and even more so during breastfeeding.
Abusive use as a psychostimulant or antiobesity product entails serious risks to the health of the mother and the infant and should be avoided (van der Hoof 2002, Gruber 1998).
TOPICAL USE ephedrine as a complement to preparations for local anesthetic, dermatologicals, stomatologicals or ophthalmologicals is compatible with breastfeeding (WHO 2002).
We do not have alternatives for Ephedrine.
Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
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