Last update: Aug. 30, 2021

COVID-19 vaccine

Very Low Risk for breastfeeding


Safe. Compatible.
Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.

"The vaccine (COVID-19) can be offered to a breastfeeding woman who is part of a group recommended for vaccination (e.g. health workers); discontinuing breastfeeding after vaccination is currently not recommended" (WHO 2021/01/25).
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Several types of vaccines are currently in development against COVID-19, among those in production there are (WHO 2021/01/26):
• Messenger ribonucleic acid vaccines (mRNA): BNT162b2, Tozinameran-Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech), MRNA-1273 (Moderna & NIH) and CVnCoV (Cure Vac). This type of vaccine uses portions of mRNA replicated from coronavirus n-19 to induce the synthesis and production of coronavirus n-19 surface proteins from muscle cells located at the site of injection that then act as triggers for the production of antibodies against the COVID-19 virus by the immune system.
• Viral vector-based vaccines: Vaxzevria Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine (Covishield in India), Gam-COVID-Vac (Gamaleya-Sputnik V), Cansino vaccine and Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine (Johnson & Johnson). These vaccines use a non-pathogenic strain of human adenovirus that has been modified to contain genetic material that resembling a portion of coronavirus 2019-nCoV that can induce the immune system to react in a way similar to what was previously described with mRNA vaccines.
• Inactivated virus vaccines: Coronavac from Sinovac, Covaxin (BBV152-Bharat Biotech) and Sinopharm vaccines.These vaccines are manufactured with dead viruses that do not have the capacity to reproduce or infect. These vaccines cause our immune system to react and start the production of specific antibodies against the COVID-19 virus.

Currently breastfeeding women have been excluded from all pre-marketing clinical trials (Palacios 2020, Costantine 2020, CDC 2020/12/15, ABM 2020/12/14).

There were no significant differences between nursing mothers and non-lactating women in terms of side effects and the rate of antibodies generated after the COVID-19 vaccine (Perl 2021/04/21, Gray 2021/03/24).
COVID vaccines cause rare and minimal adverse effects in breastfeeding or nursing infants (McLaurin 2021/06/25).
Infants of vaccinated mothers did not present any problems attributable to vaccination (Perl 2021/04/21, Gray 2021/03/24).

As expected (Baird 2021/02/23, InfantRisk 2020/12/18, ABM 2020/12/14) as after vaccination against other viruses, in the milk of lactating mothers vaccinated against COVID-19 appear antibodies (IgA and IgG especially) generated by the vaccine, which would protect the infant from COVID-19 (Valcarce 2021/08/20, Collier 2021/05/13, Perl 2021/04/21, Kelly 2021/03/30, Gray 2021/03 / 24).
The longer breastfeeding (> 23 months) there is a higher rate of IgG and IgA antibodies in breast milk among lactating women vaccinated with the COVID19 vaccine (Ramírez 2021/08/18).

It is highly improbable that any of the components that are part of the vaccines produced against COVID-19 could be excreted through human breastmilk, and even in this could happen, they would all be digested in the gastrointestinal tract of the breastfeeding child (InfantRisk 2020/12/18).
It would seem reasonable to deduct that if the disease (COVID-19) is compatible with lactation then the vaccine developed against it would be even more so, since it does not carry the live virus within its components.

Neither of the types of vaccines currently in development against COVID-19 contain live viruses within their components and therefore cannot provoke the disease or cause any alterations to the genetic material of their host (CDC 2020/12/18 y 2020/12/13).
Except for three live attenuated virus vaccines (small pox, yellow fever and oral polio-Sabin) that are known to rarely bring about negative effects on breastfeeding children, all vaccines are to be regarded as safe for use during lactation and therefore can be prescribed to breastfeeding women (CDC 2020/02/04).

Breastfeeding women are not considered to be a high-risk group for COVID-19, specially since they tend to be young and usually healthy and therefore until now there are no specific reasons that would warrant the use of the vaccine in this group.
Several Health institutions, medical societies and also expert consensus have suggested that the vaccine should be prescribed for breastfeeding women if they would also belong to a high-risk group such as healthcare workers or people afflicted by a chronic disease or condition known to be a risk factor (Mayo 2021/03/16, Davanzo 2021/02/27, Saus 2021/02/12, Chervenak 2021/02/01, WHO 2021/01/25, Sax 2021, IHAN 2021, AELAMA 2021, NHS 2021, HIFN 2020, MS España 2020/12/30, ACOG 2020/12/13, CDC 2020/12/15 y 2020/12/13).

Vaccinating against COVID-19 should not be an impediment to begin lactation nor a cause for its interruption (Davanzo 2021/02/27, Chervenak 2021/02/01, ACOG 2020/12/13).

At the end of the year 2020; AstraZeneca, Moderna and Pfizer withdrew from their respective drug leaflets the previous recommendation of not administering their vaccines to lactating mothers (Moderna 2021, AstraZeneca2021, Pfizer 2020).

As it may happen with other vaccinations, after the COVID-19 vaccination, palpable axillary lymph nodes may appear on the same side of the vaccine injection. A clinical follow-up of the nodes would be enough to rule out a presumed malignancy at the level of the breast. Costly and unnecessary complementary examinations should be avoided (Edmonds 2021, Mehta 2021).This is a transitory side effect that usually does not disrupt the continuity of breastfeeding.


See below the information of this related product:

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

References

  1. NHS - National Health Service UK. Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine. 2021 Full text (link to original source)
  2. NHS. Public Health England. A guide to COVID-19 vaccination. All women of childbearing age, those currently pregnant or breastfeeding. Leaflet. 2021 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  3. IHAN. Iniciativa para la Humanización de la Asistencia al Nacimiento y la Lactancia. Comunicado IHAN: vacunación frente a COVID-19 y lactancia materna. 2021 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  4. AELAMA (Asociación Española de Lactancia Materna). Gómez Fernández-Vegue, M. Consideraciones acerca de las vacunas frente a la COVID-19 y la lactancia materna. 2021 Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  5. WHO Interim recommendations for use of the Pfizer– BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, under Emergency Use Listing. 2021 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  6. Sax PE. Covid-19 Vaccine — Frequently Asked Questions. N Engl J Med. 2021 Full text (link to original source)
  7. WHO Interim recommendations for use of the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine against COVID-19. Interim guidance 25 January 2021. 2021 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. Moderna - BioTech. COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna. Ficha técnica. 2021 Full text (in our servers)
  9. AstraZeneca. COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca. Drug Summary. 2021 Full text (in our servers)
  10. Sinovac Life Sciences. CoronaVac. Ficha técnica. 2021 Full text (in our servers)
  11. WHO. Draft landscape and tracker of COVID-19 candidate vaccines. WHO. 26 January 2021. Publication. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  12. Mehta N, Sales RM, Babagbemi K, Levy AD, McGrath AL, Drotman M, Dodelzon K. Unilateral axillary Adenopathy in the setting of COVID-19 vaccine. Clin Imaging. 2021 Jan 19;75:12-15. Abstract
  13. Edmonds CE, Zuckerman SP, Conant EF. Management of Unilateral Axillary Lymphadenopathy Detected on Breast MRI in the Era of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Vaccination. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2021 Feb 5. Abstract
  14. Davanzo R, Agosti M, Cetin I, Chiantera A, Corsello G, Ramenghi LA, Staiano A, Tavio M, Villani A, Viora E, Mosca F. Breastfeeding and COVID-19 vaccination: position statement of the Italian scientific societies. Ital J Pediatr. 2021 Feb 27;47(1):45. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  15. Baird Jill K, Shawn M. Jensen, Walter J. Urba, Bernard A. Fox, Jason R. Baird doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.23.21252328 SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected in human breast milk post-vaccination. medRxiv 2021.02.23.21252328; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.23.21252328 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  16. Chervenak FA, McCullough LB, Bornstein E, Johnson L, Katz A, McLeod-Sordjan R, Nimaroff M, Rochelson BL, Tekbali A, Warman A, Williams K, Grünebaum A. Professionally responsible coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination counseling of obstetrical and gynecologic patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Feb 1. pii: S0002-9378(21)00082-X. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  17. Saus-Ortega C. COVID-19 Vaccines and Breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2021 Feb 12:890334421995102. Abstract
  18. Mayo S, Monfort S. Breastfeeding and COVID-19 Vaccine: Yes We Can. J Hum Lact. 2021 Mar 16:8903344211004443. Abstract
  19. Gray KJ, Bordt EA, Atyeo C, Deriso E, Akinwunmi B, Young N, Medina Baez A, Shook LL, Cvrk D, James K, De Guzman R, Brigida S, Diouf K, Goldfarb I, Bebell LM, Yonker LM, Fasano A, Rabi SA, Elovitz MA, Alter G, Edlow AG. COVID-19 vaccine response in pregnant and lactating women: a cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Mar 24. pii: S0002-9378(21)00187-3. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  20. Kelly JC, Carter EB, Raghuraman N, Nolan LS, Gong Q, Lewis AN, Good M. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies induced in breast milk after Pfizer-BioNTech/BNT162b2 vaccination: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in breast milk after vaccination. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Mar 30. pii: S0002-9378(21)00211-8. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  21. Perl SH, Uzan-Yulzari A, Klainer H, Asiskovich L, Youngster M, Rinott E, Youngster I. SARS-CoV-2-Specific Antibodies in Breast Milk After COVID-19 Vaccination of Breastfeeding Women. JAMA. 2021 Apr 12. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  22. Kelly JC, Carter EB, Raghuraman N, Nolan LS, Gong Q, Lewis AN, Good M. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies induced in breast milk after Pfizer-BioNTech/BNT162b2 vaccination. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Mar 31. pii: S0002-9378(21)00211-8. Abstract
  23. Collier AY, McMahan K, Yu J, Tostanoski LH, Aguayo R, Ansel J, Chandrashekar A, Patel S, Apraku Bondzie E, Sellers D, Barrett J, Sanborn O, Wan H, Chang A, Anioke T, Nkolola J, Bradshaw C, Jacob-Dolan C, Feldman J, Gebre M, Borducchi EN, Liu J, et al. Immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines in Pregnant and Lactating Women. JAMA. 2021 May 13. Abstract
  24. EBCOG. Martins I, Louwen F, Ayres-de-Campos D, Mahmood T. EBCOG position statement on COVID-19 vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2021 May 14. pii: S0301-2115(21)00244-X. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  25. Martins I, Louwen F, Ayres-de-Campos D, Mahmood T. EBCOG position statement on COVID-19 vaccination for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2021 Jul;262:256-258. Abstract
  26. McLaurin-Jiang S, Garner CD, Krutsch K, Hale TW. Maternal and Child Symptoms Following COVID-19 Vaccination Among Breastfeeding Mothers. Breastfeed Med. 2021 Jun 25. Abstract
  27. Ramírez DSR, Pérez MML, Pérez MC, Isis M, Hernández S, Hospital SMP, Villacampa LP, Vilar AMF, Falero MR, Carretero PG, Millán BR, Roper S, Bello MÁG. SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Breast Milk After Vaccination. Pediatrics. 2021 Aug 18. pii: e2021052286. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  28. Valcarce V, Stafford LS, Neu J, Cacho N, Parker L, Mueller M, Burchfield DJ, Li N, Larkin J 3rd. Detection of SARS-CoV-2-Specific IgA in the Human Milk of COVID-19 Vaccinated Lactating Health Care Workers. Breastfeed Med. 2021 Aug 20. Abstract
  29. CDC - Centros para el control y prevención de enfermedades. Información para entender cómo actúan las vacunas contra el COVID-19. CDC 2020/12/18. Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  30. ACOG - American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Vaccinating Pregnant and Lactating Patients Against COVID-19. ACOG 2020/12/13 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  31. CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 ACIP Vaccine Recommendations. Current COVID-19 Vaccine Recommendations. MMWR 2020/12/13 Full text (link to original source)
  32. CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccination Considerations for People who are Pregnant or Breastfeeding. CDC 2020/12/15 Full text (link to original source)
  33. CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccination Safety for Breastfeeding Mothers. CDC 2020/02/04 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  34. ABM - The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Considerations for COVID-19 Vaccination in Lactation. ABM 2020/12/14 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  35. Infant Risk Center. COVID-19 Vaccine in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. InfantRisk 2020/12/18 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  36. CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Understanding mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines. CDC 2020/12/18 Full text (link to original source)
  37. Palacios R, Patiño EG, de Oliveira Piorelli R, Conde MTRP, Batista AP, Zeng G, Xin Q, Kallas EG, Flores J, Ockenhouse CF, Gast C. Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of treating Healthcare Professionals with the Adsorbed COVID-19 (Inactivated) Vaccine Manufactured by Sinovac - PROFISCOV: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled tr... Trials. 2020 Oct 15;21(1):853. Abstract
  38. Costantine MM, Landon MB, Saade GR. Protection by Exclusion: Another Missed Opportunity to Include Pregnant Women in Research During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Jul;136(1):26-28. Abstract
  39. NHS - National Health Service UK. Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine. NHS, 2020/12/18 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  40. HIFN - Hospital Infant Feeding Network. There is an urgent need to amend UK guidance on administration of the mRNA-based Covid-19 vaccines to lactating people - in line with American guidance - and to commit to immediate collection of safety data in this population. Statement from the GP Infant Feeding Network, the Hospital Infant Feeding Network and Breastfeeding for Doctors. 2020 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  41. MS España. Ministerio de Sanidad. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. Gobierno de España. ¿Puedo vacunarme si estoy embarazada o quiero quedarme embarazada? ¿Y si tengo un bebé lactante?. 2020. Actualización: 30/12/2020 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  42. Pfizer - BioNTech Comirnaty. Ficha técnica. 2020 Full text (in our servers)

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