Last update: March 21, 2018

Bitter Fennel

High Risk for breastfeeding


Poorly safe. Evaluate carefully.
Use safer alternative or interrupt breastfeeding 3 to 7 T½.
Read the Comment.

Herbal fruits are used. It contains essential oil (70% anethol, 10% stragol, 7% fenchone) coumarin and flavonoids.

Anethol is neurotoxic and may induce seizures. Mutagenic activity and mild estrogenic effect (Javidnia 2003, Albert 1980) have been found. It is excreted in low levels into breast milk (Hausner 2008).

Stragol has shown a carcinogenic effect on animals. In humans, at recommended dose, such effect has not been seen.

Fennel infusions have been used for treatment of colicky pain in the infant. Also used as a galactogogue despite the fact that no proof on effectiveness is available. Theoretically, it may decrease milk production. Help by ensuring self confidence in the mother, evaluation and dealing with lactation associated problems and giving effective support to nursing mothers would the best ways to enhance milk production.

Excessive consumption has caused letargia, vomiting and hypotonia in either two infants and their mothers (Rosti 1994).

For culinary purposes it does not pose any health risk if consumed as food or aromatic seasoning.

Precautions when taking plant preparations:
1. Ensure that they are from a reliable source: poisoning has occurred due to confusing one plant with another with toxic properties, as well as poisoning from heavy metals extracted from the ground and food poisoning due to contamination with bacteria or fungi.
2. Do not take in large amounts; follow recommendations from professional experts in phytotherapy. "Natural" products are not always good in any quantity: plants contain active substances from which much of our traditional pharmacopoeia has been obtained and can result in poisoning or act as endocrine disruptors if taken in excessive amounts or time periods.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Bitter Fennel is also known as Fennel. Here it is a list of alternative known names::


Bitter Fennel in other languages or writings:

Groups

Bitter Fennel belongs to these groups or families:

Tradenames

Main tradenames from several countries containing Bitter Fennel in its composition:

  • Adelgazar™. Contains other elements than Bitter Fennel in its composition
  • Cefabronchin™. Contains other elements than Bitter Fennel in its composition
  • Instalax™. Contains other elements than Bitter Fennel in its composition
  • Lipomin (Липомин)™. Contains other elements than Bitter Fennel in its composition
  • Nursing Tea™. Contains other elements than Bitter Fennel in its composition
  • Relaxcol™. Contains other elements than Bitter Fennel in its composition
  • Tisane laxative™. Contains other elements than Bitter Fennel in its composition
  • Tisane pectorale et antitussive™. Contains other elements than Bitter Fennel in its composition

Pharmacokinetics

Variable Value Unit
Theoretical Dose 0,001 (anetol) mg/Kg/d

References

  1. ABM: Brodribb W. ABM Clinical Protocol #9: Use of Galactogogues in Initiating or Augmenting Maternal Milk Production, Second Revision 2018. Breastfeed Med. 2018 Jun;13(5):307-314 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  2. Sim TF, Sherriff J, Hattingh HL, Parsons R, Tee LB. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  3. Kavurt S, Bas AY, Aydemir O, Yucel H, Isikoglu S, Demirel N. The effect of galactagogue herbal tea on oxidant and anti-oxidant status of human milk. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Abstract
  4. Mortel M, Mehta SD. Systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues. J Hum Lact. 2013 Abstract
  5. Sachs HC; Committee On Drugs. The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: an update on selected topics. Pediatrics. 2013 Sep;132(3):e796-809. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  6. Mannion C, Mansell D. Breastfeeding self-efficacy and the use of prescription medication: a pilot study. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2012;2012:562704. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  7. Bruyas-Bertholon V, Lachaux A, Dubois JP, Fourneret P, Letrilliart L. [Which treatments for infantile colics?]. Presse Med. 2012 Abstract
  8. ABM. Academy Of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. ABM Clinical Protocol #9: Use of galactogogues in initiating or augmenting the rate of maternal milk secretion (First Revision January 2011). Breastfeed Med. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  9. Muresan M. Successful relactation--a case history. Breastfeed Med. 2011 Abstract
  10. Amir LH, Pirotta MV, Raval M. Breastfeeding--evidence based guidelines for the use of medicines. Aust Fam Physician. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Raffo A, Nicoli S, Leclercq C. Quantification of estragole in fennel herbal teas: implications on the assessment of dietary exposure to estragole. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Abstract
  12. ABM. Comité de Protocolos de la Academia Médica de Lactancia Materna. ABM Protocolo Clínico #9: Uso de Galactogogos para Iniciar o aumentar la tasa de secreción de Leche Materna. Breastfeed Med. 2011 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  13. WHO. World Health Organization. WHO monographs on medicinal plants commonly used in the Newly Independent States (NIS). WHO monographs. 2010 Full text (in our servers)
  14. Cuzzolin L, Francini-Pesenti F, Verlato G, Joppi M, Baldelli P, Benoni G. Use of herbal products among 392 Italian pregnant women: focus on pregnancy outcome. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010 Abstract
  15. Abdulrazzaq YM, Al Kendi A, Nagelkerke N. Soothing methods used to calm a baby in an Arab country. Acta Paediatr. 2009 Abstract
  16. Hausner H, Bredie WL, Mølgaard C, Petersen MA, Møller P. Differential transfer of dietary flavour compounds into human breast milk. Physiol Behav. 2008 Sep 3;95(1-2):118-24. Abstract
  17. WHO. World Health Organization. Geneva. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 3. p 338-348. WHO monographs. 2007 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  18. European Medicines Agency (EMeA) COMMUNITY HERBAL MONOGRAPH ON FOENICULUM VULGARE MILLER SUBSP. VULGARE VAR. VULGARE, AETHEROLEUM. COMMUNITY HERBAL MONOGRAPH. 2007 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  19. Zaffani S, Cuzzolin L, Benoni G. Herbal products: behaviors and beliefs among Italian women. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2006 Abstract
  20. Savino F, Cresi F, Castagno E, Silvestro L, Oggero R. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a standardized extract of Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis (ColiMil) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants. Phytother Res. 2005 Abstract
  21. Javidnia K, Dastgheib L, Mohammadi Samani S, Nasiri A. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2003 Abstract
  22. Ayers JF. The use of alternative therapies in the support of breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2000 Abstract
  23. Burkhard PR, Burkhardt K, Haenggeli CA, Landis T. Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem. J Neurol. 1999 Abstract
  24. Rosti L, Nardini A, Bettinelli ME, Rosti D. Toxic effects of a herbal tea mixture in two newborns. Acta Paediatr. 1994 Jun;83(6):683. No abstract available. Abstract
  25. Albert-Puleo M. Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents. J Ethnopharmacol. 1980 Abstract

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