Last update: April 24, 2021


Low Risk for breastfeeding

Moderately safe. Probably compatible.
Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended.
Read the Comment.

A sympathomimetic drug and central nervous system stimulant, it has a similar action and uses to its isomer dextroamphetamine.
It is used in the treatment of narcolepsy (Wise, 2007) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is also used as an illegal drug (Oei, 2012; Bartu, 2009).

It is excreted in breast milk, concentrating between 2 and 8 times more than in plasma (FDA, 2017; Steiner, 1984). This concentration, although it could be significant (Bartu, 2009), assumes a relative dose between 2% (Öhman, 2015) and 13.8% (FDA, 2017).

In infants whose mothers were taking amphetamine as narcolepsy treatment, low plasma levels (Öhman, 2015) and urine (Steiner, 1984) were measured and no problems were observed in the clinical follow-up of these infants (Öhman, 2015; Steiner, 1984).

There is little information on the impact of amphetamine abuse on the development and health of infants (Oei, 2012, Wise, 2007; Moretti, 2000), but it is known that they are more exposed to social problems, domestic violence, and lower breastfeeding rates (Oei, 2010).

There is controversy over the possibly mild negative effect of amphetamine on prolactin (Petraglia, 1987; DeLeo, 1983), but milk production in mothers who took it therapeutically was not affected (Öhman, 2015).

During breastfeeding, the therapeutic use (narcolepsy, ADHD) of amphetamine can be assessed, using the lowest possible effective dose and monitoring the occurrence of irritability, insomnia, lack of appetite and weight loss.

Its use as an illegal drug is totally discouraged (Oei, 2012).
To minimize the risk, after the last recreational use of amphetamine, it is advisable to wait 56 hours (5 T ½, which eliminates 97% of the substance) before breastfeeding again. For other authors it is enough to wait 48 hours (Bartu, 2009). Meanwhile, express and discard milk from the breast regularly to maintain production.

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Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM´s pediatricians and pharmacists, and are based on updated scientific publications.
It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

苯丙胺 is Amfetamine in Chinese.

Is written in other languages:

苯丙胺 is also known as


苯丙胺 belongs to these groups or families:


Main tradenames from several countries containing 苯丙胺 in its composition:


Variable Value Unit
Oral Bioavail. 96 %
Molecular weight 135 daltons
Protein Binding 15 - 40 %
VD 3 - 5 l/Kg
pKa ≈ 10 -
Tmax 5 hours
T1/2 11,3 hours
M/P ratio 2,8 - 7,5 -
Theoretical Dose 0,012 - 0,021 mg/Kg/d
Relative Dose 2,1 - 6,2 %


  1. FDA. Amphetamine. Drug Summary. 2017 Full text (in our servers)
  2. Vallersnes OM, Dines AM, Wood DM, Yates C, Heyerdahl F, Hovda KE, Giraudon I; Euro-DEN Research Group., Dargan PI. Psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity: a European case series. BMC Psychiatry. 2016 Aug 18;16:293. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  3. Öhman I, Wikner BN, Beck O, Sarman I. Narcolepsy Treated with Racemic Amphetamine during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2015 Abstract
  4. Oei JL, Kingsbury A, Dhawan A, Burns L, Feller JM, Clews S, Falconer J, Abdel-Latif ME. Amphetamines, the pregnant woman and her children: a review. J Perinatol. 2012 Oct;32(10):737-47. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  5. Carvalho M, Carmo H, Costa VM, Capela JP, Pontes H, Remião F, Carvalho F, Bastos Mde L. Toxicity of amphetamines: an update. Arch Toxicol. 2012 Aug;86(8):1167-231. Abstract
  6. Oei J, Abdel-Latif ME, Clark R, Craig F, Lui K. Short-term outcomes of mothers and infants exposed to antenatal amphetamines. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2010 Jan;95(1):F36-41. Abstract
  7. Bartu A, Dusci LJ, Ilett KF. Transfer of methylamphetamine and amphetamine into breast milk following recreational use of methylamphetamine. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Apr;67(4):455-9. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. Wise MS, Arand DL, Auger RR, Brooks SN, Watson NF; American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Treatment of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias of central origin. Sleep. 2007 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  9. de la Torre R, Farré M, Navarro M, Pacifici R, Zuccaro P, Pichini S. Clinical pharmacokinetics of amfetamine and related substances: monitoring in conventional and non-conventional matrices. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004;43(3):157-85. Review. Abstract
  10. Moretti ME, Lee A, Ito S. Which drugs are contraindicated during breastfeeding? Practice guidelines. Can Fam Physician. 2000 Sep;46:1753-7. Review. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Petraglia F, De Leo V, Sardelli S, Mazzullo G, Gioffrè WR, Genazzani AR, D'Antona N. Prolactin changes after administration of agonist and antagonist dopaminergic drugs in puerperal women. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1987;23(2):103-9. Abstract
  12. Steiner E, Villén T, Hallberg M, Rane A. Amphetamine secretion in breast milk. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Abstract
  13. DeLeo V, Cella SG, Camanni F, Genazzani AR, Müller EE. Prolactin lowering effect of amphetamine in normoprolactinemic subjects and in physiological and pathological hyperprolactinemia. Horm Metab Res. 1983 Sep;15(9):439-43. Abstract

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