Last update Aug. 22, 2022

إينتارفيرون غاما

Low Risk

Possibly safe. Probably compatible. Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended. Read the Comment.

It is a cytokine with antiviral, immunomodulatory and antitumor effects. It is mainly produced by activated T lymphocytes and natural killer cells and obtained by recombinant DNA technology. It is indicated to reduce the frequency of serious infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease and severe malignant osteopetrosis. subcutaneous administration.

Since the last update we have not found published data on its excretion in breastmilk.

The high molecular weight of the various interferons, their high binding to T lymphocytes and their distribution outside the plasmatic compartment make their passage into milk very unlikely.

Due to protein nature, a low oral bioavailability is predicted after being digested by the intestine of infants. Therefore, infants' plasma levels from ingested breast milk must be zero or low, except in preterm infants and immediate neonatal period (2 first weeks after birth), in which there may be greater intestinal absorption.

Excretion of other interferons, such as interferon Alfa or interferon Beta, in breast milk is negligible.(Hale 2012, Kumar 2000, Haggstrom 1996)

No side effects have been observed in infants after maternal treatment with interferon beta (1a or 1b) for months or years. (Ciplea 2020, Fragoso 2013, Hale 2012, Rockhoff 2012, Hellwig 2011)


Interferon-gamma is naturally found in breastmilk (Goldman 1996) where it is produced by leukocytes from colostrum and mature milk(Lawton 1979); Probably it acts on the oropharyngeal and intestinal lymphoid tissue of the infant contributing to the development and maturation of the immune system. (Bocci 1993)

Interferon gamma level is higher in premature mother's milk, 2,6 ng/L, than in at-term mother's milk, 0,7 ng/L (Moles 2015, Srivastava 1996). Milk pasteurization reduces the interferon gamma level (Ewaschuk 2011). Breastfeeding, probably through increasing prolactin, increases the maternal plasma concentration of interferon gamma and interleukin compared to baseline conditions. (Shimaoka 2001)


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Other names

إينتارفيرون غاما is Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ) in Arabic.

Is written in other languages:

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Main tradenames from several countries containing إينتارفيرون غاما in its composition:


Variable Value Unit
Oral Bioavail. ≈ 0 %
Molecular weight 16.465 daltons
Tmax sc: 7 - 8 ; im: 4 hours
sc: 5 - 6 ; im: 3 ; iv: 0.6 hours


  1. Ciplea AI, Langer-Gould A, Stahl A, Thiel S, Queisser-Wahrendorf A, Gold R, Hellwig K. Safety of potential breast milk exposure to IFN-β or glatiramer acetate: One-year infant outcomes. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2020 May 20;7(4). pii: e757. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  2. Moles L, Manzano S, Fernández L, Montilla A, Corzo N, Ares S, Rodríguez JM, Espinosa-Martos I. Bacteriological, biochemical, and immunological properties of colostrum and mature milk from mothers of extremely preterm infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 Abstract
  3. Cree BA. Update on reproductive safety of current and emerging disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2013 Jun;19(7):835-43. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  4. Fragoso YD, Boggild M, Macias-Islas MA, Carra A, Schaerer KD, Aguayo A, de Almeida SM, Alvarenga MP, Alvarenga RM, Alves-Leon SV, Arruda WO, Brooks JB, Comini-Frota ER, Ferreira ML, Finkelsztejn A, Finkelsztejn JM, de Freitas LD, Gallina AS, da Gama PD, Georgetto S, Giacomo MC, Gomes S, et al. The effects of long-term exposure to disease-modifying drugs during pregnancy in multiple sclerosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013 Abstract
  5. Rockhoff M, Hellwig K. Family planning and interferon (beta)-1b - A case report of successful hormonal stimulation, pregnancy and breast-feeding under interferon (beta)-1b Aktuel Neurol Suppl.1:S49-S51. 2012
  6. Hale TW, Siddiqui AA, Baker TE. Transfer of interferon β-1a into human breastmilk. Breastfeed Med. 2012 Abstract
  7. Ewaschuk JB, Unger S, O'Connor DL, Stone D, Harvey S, Clandinin MT, Field CJ. Effect of pasteurization on selected immune components of donated human breast milk. J Perinatol. 2011 Abstract
  8. Hellwig K, Gold R. Glatiramer acetate and interferon-beta throughout gestation and postpartum in women with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 2011 Abstract
  9. Shimaoka Y, Hidaka Y, Tada H, Takeoka K, Morimoto Y, Amino N. Influence of breast-feeding on the production of cytokines. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2001 Abstract
  10. Kumar AR, Hale TW, Mock RE. Transfer of interferon alfa into human breast milk. J Hum Lact. 2000 Abstract
  11. Goldman AS, Chheda S, Garofalo R, Schmalstieg FC. Cytokines in human milk: properties and potential effects upon the mammary gland and the neonate. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 1996 Abstract
  12. Haggstrom J, Adriansson M, Hybbinette T, Harnby E, Thorbert G. Two cases of CML treated with alpha-interferon during second and third trimester of pregnancy with analysis of the drug in the new-born immediately postpartum. Eur J Haematol. 1996 Abstract
  13. Srivastava MD, Srivastava A, Brouhard B, Saneto R, Groh-Wargo S, Kubit J. Cytokines in human milk. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1996 Abstract
  14. Bocci V, von Bremen K, Corradeschi F, Franchi F, Luzzi E, Paulesu L. Presence of interferon-gamma and interleukin-6 in colostrum of normal women. Lymphokine Cytokine Res. 1993 Abstract
  15. Lawton JW, Shortridge KF, Wong RL, Ng MH. Interferon synthesis by human colostral leucocytes. Arch Dis Child. 1979 Abstract

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