Last update Aug. 28, 2021

Vitamin C

Very Low Risk

Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.

El ácido ascórbico y sus sales de calcio y sodio tienen actividad de vitamina C, una vitamina hidrosoluble esencial, necesaria para el normal funcionamiento del organismo.
No se produce ni acumula en el organismo (es eliminada por el riñón) y debe ser ingerida con la dieta; es muy abundante en frutas y verduras.
Tiene propiedades antioxidantes, mejora la absorción del hierro, mantiene sanos los tejidos, colágeno, cartilagos, huesos, dientes y encías, y es necesaria para la cicatrización de las heridas y el funcionamiento del sistema inmune (MedlinePlus 2019, Castro 2019).

La leche materna contiene niveles controlados entre 50 y 100 mg/L según la cantidad de vitamina C en la dieta (Sauberan 2019, Tawfeek 2002).
Los niveles son ligeramente superiores en el calostro (Ahmed 2011) y en la leche de madres de prematuros (Udipi 1985) y decrecen ligeramente a lo largo de la lactancia (Karra 1986).

La leche materna de madres desnutridas tiene niveles menores de 50 mg/L que mejoran con suplementos de 100 a 200 mg/día (Daneel 2005, Bates 1983). En madres bien nutridas, los suplementos no modifican apenas los niveles de vitamina C (Sauberan 2019, Daneel 2005, Thomas 1980 y 1979, Munks 1947). La relación entre ingesta de vitamina C y niveles en leche materna no está bien aclarada (Keikha 2021).
Hay menores niveles de vitamina C en leche de mujeres fumadoras o con diabetes (Heinz 1987).

Las necesidades diarias de la madre lactante son de 100 a 120 mg al día (NIH 2021, MedlinePlus 2019, Ares 2015, Hall 2010).
Salvo en madres desnutridas y/o fumadoras, con una dieta variada y equilibrada, no se necesitan suplementos de vitamina C (Ares 2015).
Las necesidades en menores de 6 meses son de 40 mg al día (NIH 2021, MedlinePlus 2019).

Aportes excesivos de vitamina C (incluso superiores a 1.000 mg al día) aumentan poco sus niveles en leche materna (Byerley 1985, Anderson 1985, Sneed 1981).

La congelación (Buss 2001, Bank 1985) y la pasteurización (Castro 2019) de la leche materna disminuyen de forma variable los niveles de vitamina C, lo que puede originar niveles plasmáticos bajos de vitamina C en prematuros alimentados con leche de banco pasteurizada que no reciben suplementos de vitamina C (Castro 2021 y 2019, Heinonen 1986).

La mayor concentración de vitamina C en leche materna podría prevenir el riesgo de atopia en los lactantes (Hoppu 2005).

Se debe evitar el uso de cantidades excesivas de vitamina C por vía intravenosa en madres con insuficiencia renal, antecedentes de cálculos renales, deficiencia de G6PD o hematuria paroxística nocturna, así como en madres de lactantes con problemas renales o deficiencia de G6PD (Khoshnam 2019, Quinn 2017, Huang 2014, Rees 1993).

Listado de medicamentos esenciales OMS: compatible con la lactancia (WHO 2002).

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Vitamin C is also known as


Vitamin C in other languages or writings:

Group

Vitamin C belongs to this group or family:

Tradenames

Main tradenames from several countries containing Vitamin C in its composition:

Pharmacokinetics

Variable Value Unit
Oral Bioavail. 70 - 90 %
Molecular weight 176 daltons
Protein Binding 25 %
pKa 4,36 -
Tmax 2 - 3 hours
T1/2 384 hours

References

  1. NIH. Vitamin C. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. 2021 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  2. Keikha M, Shayan-Moghadam R, Bahreynian M, Kelishadi R. Nutritional supplements and mother's milk composition: a systematic review of interventional studies. Int Breastfeed J. 2021 Jan 4;16(1):1. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  3. Castro M, Pitino MA, Bando N, Aufreiter S, Stone D, O'Connor DL, Unger S. Term Infants Fed Exclusively With Donor Milk May Require Vitamin C Supplementation. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2021 Jan 12. Abstract
  4. Sauberan JB. High-Dose Vitamins. Breastfeed Med. 2019 Apr 30. Abstract
  5. MedlinePlus. Vitamina C. Información de salud para usted. 2019 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  6. MedlinePlus. Vitamin C Trusted Health information for you. 2019 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  7. Castro M, Pitino M, Bando N, Aufreiter S, O'Connor D, Unger S Infants exclusively fed human donor milk require supplementation with vitamin C. Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting (PASM) 2019 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. Khoshnam-Rad N, Khalili H. Safety of vitamin C in sepsis: a neglected topic. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2019 Aug;25(4):329-333. Abstract
  9. Quinn J, Gerber B, Fouche R, Kenyon K, Blom Z, Muthukanagaraj P. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin C Infusion in a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Patient. Case Rep Med. 2017;2017:5202606. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  10. Ares Segura S, Arena Ansótegui J, Díaz-Gómez NM; en representación del Comité de Lactancia Materna de la Asociación Española de Pediatría. La importancia de la nutrición materna durante la lactancia, ¿necesitan las madres lactantes suplementos nutricionales? [The importance of maternal nutrition during breastfeeding: Do breastfeeding mothers need nutritional supplements?] An Pediatr (Barc). 2015 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Huang YC, Chang TK, Fu YC, Jan SL. C for colored urine: acute hemolysis induced by high-dose ascorbic acid. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Nov;52(9):984. Abstract
  12. Hall Moran V, Lowe N, Crossland N, Berti C, Cetin I, Hermoso M, Koletzko B, Dykes F. Nutritional requirements during lactation. Towards European alignment of reference values: the EURRECA network. Matern Child Nutr. 2010 Oct;6 Suppl 2:39-54. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  13. Hoppu U, Rinne M, Salo-Väänänen P, Lampi AM, Piironen V, Isolauri E. Vitamin C in breast milk may reduce the risk of atopy in the infant. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  14. Daneel-Otterbech S, Davidsson L, Hurrell R. Ascorbic acid supplementation and regular consumption of fresh orange juice increase the ascorbic acid content of human milk: studies in European and African lactating women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 May;81(5):1088-93. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  15. Ahmed L Jr, Islam S, Khan N, Nahid S. Vitamin C content in human milk (colostrum, transitional and mature) and serum of a sample of bangladeshi mothers. Malays J Nutr. 2004 Mar;10(1):1-4. Epub 2004 Mar 15. Abstract
  16. Tawfeek HI, Muhyaddin OM, al-Sanwi HI, al-Baety N. Effect of maternal dietary vitamin C intake on the level of vitamin C in breastmilk among nursing mothers in Baghdad, Iraq. Food Nutr Bull. 2002 Abstract
  17. WHO / UNICEF. BREASTFEEDING AND MATERNAL MEDICATION Recommendations for Drugs in the Eleventh WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (WHO/UNICEF) 2002 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  18. Buss IH, McGill F, Darlow BA, Winterbourn CC. Vitamin C is reduced in human milk after storage. Acta Paediatr. 2001 Jul;90(7):813-5. Abstract
  19. Rees DC, Kelsey H, Richards JD. Acute haemolysis induced by high dose ascorbic acid in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. BMJ. 1993 Mar 27;306(6881):841-2. No abstract available. Abstract
  20. Heinz-Erian P, Achmüller M, Berger H, Brabéc W, Nirk S, Rufer R. [Vitamin C concentrations in maternal plasma, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, the plasma of newborn infants, colostrum and transitory and mature breast milk]. Padiatr Padol. 1987;22(2):163-78. German. Abstract
  21. Karra MV, Udipi SA, Kirksey A, Roepke JL. Changes in specific nutrients in breast milk during extended lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986 Apr;43(4):495-503. Abstract
  22. Heinonen K, Mononen I, Mononen T, Parviainen M, Penttilä I, Launiala K. Plasma vitamin C levels are low in premature infants fed human milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986 Jun;43(6):923-4. Abstract
  23. Byerley LO, Kirksey A. Effects of different levels of vitamin C intake on the vitamin C concentration in human milk and the vitamin C intakes of breast-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  24. Anderson DM, Pittard WB 3rd. Vitamin E and C concentrations in human milk with maternal megadosing: a case report. J Am Diet Assoc. 1985 Abstract
  25. Bank MR, Kirksey A, West K, Giacoia G. Effect of storage time and temperature on folacin and vitamin C levels in term and preterm human milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Feb;41(2):235-42. Abstract
  26. Udipi SA, Kirksey A, West K, Giacoia G. Vitamin B6, vitamin C and folacin levels in milk from mothers of term and preterm infants during the neonatal period. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Sep;42(3):522-30. Abstract
  27. Bates CJ, Prentice AM, Prentice A, Lamb WH, Whitehead RG. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on lactating women in Keneba, a West African rural community. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1983;53(1):68-76. Abstract
  28. Sneed SM, Zane C, Thomas MR. The effects of ascorbic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid supplementation on the breast milk and maternal nutritional status of low socioeconomic lactating women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Jul;34(7):1338-46. Abstract
  29. Thomas MR, Sneed SM, Wei C, Nail PA, Wilson M, Sprinkle EE 3rd. The effects of vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, riboflavin, and thiamin on the breast milk and maternal status of well-nourished women at 6 months postpartum. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Abstract
  30. Thomas MR, Kawamoto J, Sneed SM, Eakin R. The effects of vitamin C, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 supplementation on the breast milk and maternal status of well-nourished women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  31. MUNKS B, KAUCHER M, et al. Metabolism of women during the reproductive cycle; vitamin C in diets, breast milk, blood and urine of nursing mothers. J Nutr. 1947 Abstract Full text (in our servers)

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