Last update Nov. 8, 2022


Likely Compatibility

Fairly safe. Mild or unlikely adverse effects. Compatible under certain circumstances. Follow-up recommended. Read Commentary.

Probiotics are live, non-pathogenic microorganisms that are administered for the intended purpose of improving health. Oral administration. (Cucalón 2020, Gibson 2017, Williams2010)

As of the last review, there is no valid scientific evidence that the use of probiotics is effective in treating mastitis or breast pain in women. (WHO 2022, Crepinsek 2020, Barker 2020, Paricio 2017, Espínola 2016, Amir 2016, Baeza 2015, Amir 2014)

Its indiscriminate use can delay other treatments and be financially burdensome. (WHO 2022, Amir 2016)

Evidence that orally administered can get into the milk is lacking. (Elias 2011)

The use of presumably preventive probiotics during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of mastitis and other complications of breastfeeding during the first month of breastfeeding. (Karlsson 2019)

The administration of probiotics to the mother may partially alter the composition of milk: changes have been shown in the lipid profile, IgA levels (increase or decrease depending on studies) and in other immunological factors as cytokines IL-27, TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 (Kubota 2014, Nikniaz 2013, Luoto 2012, Hoppu 2012, Prescott 2008, Böttcher 2008). The impact and importance of this are not well known.

Research on the use of probiotics for treatment or prevent various pathological conditions, necrotizing enterocolitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis (Wickens 2013, Rautava 2012 y 2002, Boyle 2011, Foisy 2011, Dotterud 2010), colicky pain, mastitis (Fernández 2014, Arroyo 2010, Jiménez 2008), breast pain, vaginitis, gastroenteritis (see specific sheet of Saccharomyces boulardii) and inflammatory bowel disease, among others, is very promising, but so far with very modest results and the lack of significant scientific level 1 evidence based. (WHO 2022, Crepinsek 2020, Barker 2020, Ehrhardt 2016, Foisy 2011, Thomas 2010, Boyle 2006)

Probiotics seem to be safe (Snydman 2008, Borriello 2002), except in cases of Immune disease, severe intestinal compromise, diabetes or heart disease in the mother and prematurity (Sotoudegan 2019, Doron 2015, Boyle 2006). Although rare, there have been cases of serious probiotic infections when administering probiotics in patients with any of these pathological conditions. (Poncelet 2021, Chakravarty 2019, Cavicchiolo 2019, Celis 2019, Martin 2017, Hayes 2016, Land 2005, Mackay 1999, Rautio 1999)

Probiotic mixtures (more than single strains) decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. (Robertson 2019, Bührer 2019, Bi 2019)

Breast milk is an important source of probiotics and probiotics (Walker 2013, Weng 2013, Weber 2012, Novak 2001). It contains numerous species of saprophytic bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus salivarius, Enterococci , Lactobacilli) with immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (Heikkilä 2003). Also, contains oligosaccharides that promote the growth of these commensal bacteria in the infant gut .

Breastfeeding plays a fundamental role in the colonization of the newborn gut (Walker 2013, Weber 2012, Martín 2012, Thum 2012, Penders 2006). During the first years of life intestinal flora of infants varies according to whether or not breastfed.

See below the information of these related products:

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it. The pharmaceutical industry contraindicates breastfeeding, mistakenly and without scientific reasons, in most of the drug data sheets.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.


Probiotics belongs to this group or family:


Main tradenames from several countries containing Probiotics in its composition:


  1. WHO. WHO recommendations on maternal and newborn care for a positive postnatal experience. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Consulted on June 6, 2022 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  2. Poncelet A, Ruelle L, Konopnicki D, Miendje Deyi VY, Dauby N. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia: Risk factors, outcome and links with S. boulardii-containing probiotic administration. Infect Dis Now. 2021 May;51(3):293-295. Abstract
  3. Cucalón Arenal JM, Blay Cortés MG. Actualización en probióticos, prebióticos y simbióticos para el médico de familia (I) Med Gen Fam. 2020; 9(5): 243-251 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  4. Crepinsek MA, Taylor EA, Michener K, Stewart F. Interventions for preventing mastitis after childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Sep 29;9:CD007239. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  5. Barker M, Adelson P, Peters MDJ, Steen M. Probiotics and human lactational mastitis: A scoping review. Women Birth. 2020 Nov;33(6):e483-e491. Abstract
  6. Sotoudegan F, Daniali M, Hassani S, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. Reappraisal of probiotics' safety in human. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Jul;129:22-29. Abstract
  7. Celis Castañeda LA, Morales Camacho WJ, Durán Ochoa NM. [Sepsis due to Lactobacillus reuteri in an extreme preterm newborn: case report]. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2019 Oct 1;117(5):e509-e513. Spanish. Abstract
  8. Karlsson S, Brantsæter AL, Meltzer HM, Jacobsson B, Barman M, Sengpiel V. Maternal probiotic milk intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding complications in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Eur J Nutr. 2019 Sep 10. Abstract
  9. Chakravarty S, Parashar A, Acharyya S. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sepsis Following Probiotic Therapy in an Infant. Indian Pediatr. 2019 Nov 15;56(11):971-972. Abstract
  10. Cavicchiolo ME, Magnani M, Calgaro S, Bonadies L, Castagliulo I, Morelli L, Verlato G, Baraldi E. Neonatal sepsis associated with Lactobacillus supplementation. J Perinat Med. 2019 Nov 12. pii: /j/jpme.ahead-of-print/jpm-2019-0268/jpm-2019-0268.xml. Abstract
  11. Robertson C, Savva GM, Clapuci R, Jones J, Maimouni H, Brown E, Minocha A, Hall LJ, Clarke P. Incidence of necrotising enterocolitis before and after introducing routine prophylactic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotics. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2019 Oct 30. pii: fetalneonatal-2019-317346. Abstract
  12. Bührer C, Fischer HS, Wellmann S. Nutritional interventions to reduce rates of infection, necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality in very preterm infants. Pediatr Res. 2019 Oct 23. Abstract
  13. Bi LW, Yan BL, Yang QY, Li MM, Cui HL. Which is the best probiotic treatment strategy to prevent the necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants: A network meta-analysis revealing the efficacy and safety. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Oct;98(41):e17521. Abstract
  14. Gibson GR, Hutkins R, Sanders ME, Prescott SL, Reimer RA, Salminen SJ, Scott K, Stanton C, Swanson KS, Cani PD, Verbeke K, Reid G. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Aug;14(8):491-502. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  15. Martin IW, Tonner R, Trivedi J, Miller H, Lee R, Liang X, Rotello L, Isenbergh E, Anderson J, Perl T, Zhang SX. Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic-associated fungemia: questioning the safety of this preventive probiotic's use. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Abstract
  16. Espínola-Docio B, Costa-Romero M, Díaz-Gómez NM, Paricio-Talayero JM; Comité de Lactancia Materna, Asociación Española de Pediatría.. Mastitis. Puesta al día. [Mastitis update.] Arch Argent Pediatr. 2016 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  17. Ehrhardt S, Guo N, Hinz R, Schoppen S, May J, Reiser M, Schroeder MP, Schmiedel S, Keuchel M, Reisinger EC, Langeheinecke A, de Weerth A, Schuchmann M, Schaberg T, Ligges S, Eveslage M, Hagen RM, Burchard GD, Lohse AW. Saccharomyces boulardii to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Abstract
  18. Amir LH, Griffin L, Cullinane M, Garland SM. Probiotics and mastitis: evidence-based marketing? Int Breastfeed J. 2016 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  19. Hayes SR, Vargas AJ. Probiotics for the Prevention of Pediatric Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea. Explore (NY). 2016 Abstract
  20. Doron S, Snydman DR. Risk and safety of probiotics. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 May 15;60 Suppl 2:S129-34. Abstract
  21. Baeza C. Dolor en la mama lactante: claves etiológicas y manejo clínico (I). Monografías Clínicas en Lactancia Materna. Madrid: Centro Raíces 2015, p.3-13. 2015 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  22. Amir LH; Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. ABM Clinical Protocol #4: Mastitis, Revised March 2014. Breastfeed Med. 2014;9(5):239-243. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  23. Kubota T, Shimojo N, Nonaka K, Yamashita M, Ohara O, Igoshi Y, Ozawa N, Nakano T, Morita Y, Inoue Y, Arima T, Chiba K, Nakamura Y, Ikegami S, Masuda K, Suzuki S, Kohno Y. Prebiotic consumption in pregnant and lactating women increases IL-27 expression in human milk. Br J Nutr. 2014 Abstract
  24. Fernández L, Arroyo R, Espinosa I, Marín M, Jiménez E, Rodríguez JM. Probiotics for human lactational mastitis. Benef Microbes. 2014 Abstract
  25. Amir LH. y el Comité de protocolos de la Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Protocolo clínico de la ABM n.o 4: Mastitis, modi cado en marzo de 2014. Breastfeed Med. 2014;9(5):239-243. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  26. Weng M, Walker WA. The role of gut microbiota in programming the immune phenotype. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  27. Nikniaz L, Ostadrahimi A, Mahdavi R, Hejazi MA, Salekdeh GH. Effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk levels of IgA, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2. J Hum Lact. 2013 Abstract
  28. Wickens K, Stanley TV, Mitchell EA, Barthow C, Fitzharris P, Purdie G, Siebers R, Black PN, Crane J. Early supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 reduces eczema prevalence to 6 years: does it also reduce atopic sensitization? Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Abstract
  29. Walker WA. Initial intestinal colonization in the human infant and immune homeostasis. Ann Nutr Metab. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  30. Luoto R, Laitinen K, Nermes M, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Early Hum Dev. 2012 Jun;88(6):339-44. Abstract
  31. Rautava S, Kainonen E, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  32. Thum C, Cookson AL, Otter DE, McNabb WC, Hodgkinson AJ, Dyer J, Roy NC. Can nutritional modulation of maternal intestinal microbiota influence the development of the infant gastrointestinal tract? J Nutr. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  33. Martín V, Maldonado-Barragán A, Moles L, Rodriguez-Baños M, Campo RD, Fernández L, Rodríguez JM, Jiménez E. Sharing of bacterial strains between breast milk and infant feces. J Hum Lact. 2012 Abstract
  34. Weber TK, Polanco I. Gastrointestinal microbiota and some children diseases: a review. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  35. Hoppu U, Isolauri E, Laakso P, Matomäki J, Laitinen K. Probiotics and dietary counselling targeting maternal dietary fat intake modifies breast milk fatty acids and cytokines. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Abstract
  36. Foisy M, Boyle RJ, Chalmers JR, Simpson EL, Williams HC. Overview of Reviews The prevention of eczema in infants and children: an overview of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews. Evid Based Child Health. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  37. Boyle RJ, Ismail IH, Kivivuori S, Licciardi PV, Robins-Browne RM, Mah LJ, Axelrad C, Moore S, Donath S, Carlin JB, Lahtinen SJ, Tang ML. Lactobacillus GG treatment during pregnancy for the prevention of eczema: a randomized controlled trial. Allergy. 2011 Abstract
  38. Elias J, Bozzo P, Einarson A. Are probiotics safe for use during pregnancy and lactation? Can Fam Physician. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  39. Dotterud CK, Storrø O, Johnsen R, Oien T. Probiotics in pregnant women to prevent allergic disease: a randomized, double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  40. Thomas DW, Greer FR; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition; American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Probiotics and prebiotics in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  41. Arroyo R, Martín V, Maldonado A, Jiménez E, Fernández L, Rodríguez JM. Treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation: antibiotics versus oral administration of Lactobacilli isolated from breast milk. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  42. Williams NT. Probiotics. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010 Mar 15;67(6):449-58. Abstract
  43. Jiménez E, Fernández L, Maldonado A, Martín R, Olivares M, Xaus J, Rodríguez JM. Oral administration of Lactobacillus strains isolated from breast milk as an alternative for the treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  44. Prescott SL, Wickens K, Westcott L, Jung W, Currie H, Black PN, Stanley TV, Mitchell EA, Fitzharris P, Siebers R, Wu L, Crane J; Probiotic Study Group. Supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics in pregnancy increases cord blood interferon-gamma and breast milk transforming growth factor-beta and immunoglobin A detection. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008 Abstract
  45. Böttcher MF, Abrahamsson TR, Fredriksson M, Jakobsson T, Björkstén B. Low breast milk TGF-beta2 is induced by Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation and associates with reduced risk of sensitization during infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2008 Abstract
  46. Snydman DR. The safety of probiotics. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Abstract Full text (in our servers)
  47. Penders J, Thijs C, Vink C, Stelma FF, Snijders B, Kummeling I, van den Brandt PA, Stobberingh EE. Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy. Pediatrics. 2006
  48. Boyle RJ, Robins-Browne RM, Tang ML. Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks? Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  49. Land MH, Rouster-Stevens K, Woods CR, Cannon ML, Cnota J, Shetty AK. Lactobacillus sepsis associated with probiotic therapy. Pediatrics. 2005 Jan;115(1):178-81. Abstract
  50. Heikkilä MP, Saris PE. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by the commensal bacteria of human milk. J Appl Microbiol. 2003 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  51. Borriello SP, Hammes WP, Holzapfel W, Marteau P, Schrezenmeir J, Vaara M, Valtonen V. Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  52. Rautava S, Kalliomäki M, Isolauri E. Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  53. Novak FR, Almeida JA, Silva GO, Borba LM. [Human colostrum: a natural source of probiotics?] J Pediatr (Rio J). 2001 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  54. Mackay AD, Taylor MB, Kibbler CC, Hamilton-Miller JM. Lactobacillus endocarditis caused by a probiotic organism. Clin Microbiol Infect. 1999 May;5(5):290-292. No abstract available. Abstract
  55. Rautio M, Jousimies-Somer H, Kauma H, Pietarinen I, Saxelin M, Tynkkynen S, Koskela M. Liver abscess due to a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 May;28(5):1159-60. No abstract available. Abstract

Total visits


Help us improve this entry

How to cite this entry

Do you need more information or did not found what you were looking for?

   Write us at

e-lactancia is a resource recommended by El Parto Es Nuestro of Spain

Would you like to recommend the use of e-lactancia? Write to us at corporate mail of APILAM