Last update Aug. 18, 2021

Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms)

Very Low Risk

Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.

A nutritional trace mineral required for multiple vital functions, including thyroid hormone synthesis and infant neurological development (Leung 2011). Its deficiency affects thyroid function and cognitive performance.

Iodine is a normal component of breast milk (Leung 2011).
Breast milk should have a concentration greater than 100 micrograms/L of iodine (*) with an average of 152 (106-199) micrograms/L (Manousou 2021, Nazeri 2018, Ares 2015) to meet the daily iodine needs of the infant, estimated at 15 micrograms/kg (Ares 2015).
Iodine supplementation to the nursing mother increases iodine concentrations in breast milk (Huynh 2016, Sukkhojaiwaratkul 2014, Mulrine 2010, Seibold-Weiger 1999).

In many regions of the world, including highly developed areas, there is iodine deficiency in humans and especially in pregnant and lactating mothers. Adding iodine to salt is the most efficient method to prevent iodine deficiency in the population, but depending on countries and areas it may be necessary to administer iodine supplements to pregnant and lactating mothers (Nazeri 2015, Donnay 2014, Caron 2006).

The daily needs, from 100 to 150 micrograms daily, rise in pregnancy and lactation to 250 - 300 micrograms, so most experts and health organizations recommend supplements of between 100 and 200 micrograms daily according to regions (Alexander 2017, Leung 2015, Donnay 2014, Mackerras 2012, Stagnaro-Green 2011, Leung 2011, Mulrine 2010, Caron 2006).

Other authors consider that there is insufficient quality evidence to determine the balance between benefits and risks of pharmacological iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation and suggest that this intervention should not be performed (Pallás 2014).

Iodine intakes greater than 500 micrograms per day are not recommended (Alexander 2017, Leung 2015).

*: 1 milligram = 1,000 micrograms; 100 micrograms = 0.1 milligram.


See below the information of these related products:

  • Fucus ( Poorly safe. Evaluate carefully. Use safer alternative or interrupt breastfeeding 3 to 7 T ½ (elimination half-lives). Read the Comment.)
  • Iodine (as Thyroid Drug: Miligrams) (Moderately safe. Probably compatible. Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended. Read the Comment.)
  • Seaweed (Moderately safe. Probably compatible. Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended. Read the Comment.)

Alternatives

We do not have alternatives for Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) since it is relatively safe.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) is also known as


Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) in other languages or writings:

  • I2 (Molecular formula)
  • KI (Molecular formula)
  • KIO3 (Molecular formula)
  • NaI (Molecular formula)

Group

Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) belongs to this group or family:

Tradenames

Main tradenames from several countries containing Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) in its composition:

  • Folyoben™. Contains other elements than Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) in its composition
  • Natalben Lactancia™. Contains other elements than Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) in its composition
  • Suplefol™. Contains other elements than Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) in its composition
  • Yodocefol™. Contains other elements than Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) in its composition
  • Yodofol™. Contains other elements than Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) in its composition
  • Yoduk 200 microgramos comprimidos
  • Yoduk Complex™. Contains other elements than Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) in its composition
  • Yofolvit™. Contains other elements than Iodine (nutritional supplement; micrograms) in its composition

Pharmacokinetics

Variable Value Unit
Molecular weight 127 daltons
M/P ratio 25 -

References

  1. Manousou S, Augustin H, Eggertsen R, Hulthén L, Filipsson Nyström H. Inadequate iodine intake in lactating women in Sweden: A pilot 1-year, prospective, observational study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2021 Jan;100(1):48-57. Abstract
  2. Nazeri P, Kabir A, Dalili H, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Breast-Milk Iodine Concentrations and Iodine Levels of Infants According to the Iodine Status of the Country of Residence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Thyroid. 2018 Jan;28(1):124-138. Abstract
  3. Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, Brown RS, Chen H, Dosiou C, Grobman WA, Laurberg P, Lazarus JH, Mandel SJ, Peeters RP, Sullivan S. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Thyroid. 2017 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  4. Huynh D, Condo D, Gibson R, Makrides M, Muhlhausler B, Zhou SJ. Comparison of breast-milk iodine concentration of lactating women in Australia pre and post mandatory iodine fortification. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  5. Leung AM, Avram AM, Brenner AV, Duntas LH, Ehrenkranz J, Hennessey JV, Lee SL, Pearce EN, Roman SA, Stagnaro-Green A, Sturgis EM, Sundaram K, Thomas MJ, Wexler JA. Potential risks of excess iodine ingestion and exposure: statement by the american thyroid association public health committee. Thyroid. 2015 Feb;25(2):145-6. Abstract
  6. Ares Segura S, Arena Ansótegui J, Díaz-Gómez NM; en representación del Comité de Lactancia Materna de la Asociación Española de Pediatría. La importancia de la nutrición materna durante la lactancia, ¿necesitan las madres lactantes suplementos nutricionales? [The importance of maternal nutrition during breastfeeding: Do breastfeeding mothers need nutritional supplements?] An Pediatr (Barc). 2015 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  7. Nazeri P, Mirmiran P, Shiva N, Mehrabi Y, Mojarrad M, Azizi F. Iodine nutrition status in lactating mothers residing in countries with mandatory and voluntary iodine fortification programs: an updated systematic review. Thyroid. 2015 Abstract
  8. Sukkhojaiwaratkul D, Mahachoklertwattana P, Poomthavorn P, Panburana P, Chailurkit LO, Khlairit P, Pongratanakul S. Effects of maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on iodine status and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone. J Perinatol. 2014 Abstract
  9. Pallás Alonso, CR. Suplementos de yodo en la gestación y la lactancia. Recomendaciones PrevInfad. 2014 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  10. Donnay S, Arena J, Lucas A, Velasco I, Ares S; Working Group on Disorders Related to Iodine Deficiency and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Position statement of the working group on disorders related to iodine deficiency and thyroid dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. Endocrinol Nutr. 2014 Abstract
  11. Bouhouch RR, Bouhouch S, Cherkaoui M, Aboussad A, Stinca S, Haldimann M, Andersson M, Zimmermann MB. Direct iodine supplementation of infants versus supplementation of their breastfeeding mothers: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Abstract
  12. Mackerras DE, Eastman CJ. Estimating the iodine supplementation level to recommend for pregnant and breastfeeding women in Australia. Med J Aust. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  13. Lazarus JH. Pre-conception counselling in graves' disease. Eur Thyroid J. 2012 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  14. CLM - Comité de Lactancia Materna de la AEP. Preguntas frecuentes sobre lactancia materna. Folleto. 2012 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  15. Leung AM, Pearce EN, Braverman LE. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  16. Stagnaro-Green A, Abalovich M, Alexander E, Azizi F, Mestman J, Negro R, Nixon A, Pearce EN, Soldin OP, Sullivan S, Wiersinga W; American Thyroid Association Taskforce on Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum.. Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum. Thyroid. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  17. Mulrine HM, Skeaff SA, Ferguson EL, Gray AR, Valeix P. Breast-milk iodine concentration declines over the first 6 mo postpartum in iodine-deficient women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  18. Hall Moran V, Lowe N, Crossland N, Berti C, Cetin I, Hermoso M, Koletzko B, Dykes F. Nutritional requirements during lactation. Towards European alignment of reference values: the EURRECA network. Matern Child Nutr. 2010 Oct;6 Suppl 2:39-54. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  19. Abalovich M, Amino N, Barbour LA, Cobin RH, De Groot LJ, Glinoer D, Mandel SJ, Stagnaro-Green A. Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  20. Caron P, Glinoer D, Lecomte P, Orgiazzi J, Wémeau JL. [Status of iodine nutrition in France: prevention of iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2006 Abstract
  21. Seibold-Weiger K, Wollmann H, Rendl J, Ranke M, Speer C. [Iodine concentration in the breast milk of mothers of premature infants]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 1999 Abstract

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