Last update Aug. 19, 2021

Fumaric Acid

Very Low Risk

Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.

Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory used in the treatment of psoriasis and in relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.
Topical and oral administration every 12 hours

Its pharmacokinetic data, wide volume of distribution and short half-life, explain (Almas 2016) the negligible passage to breast milk observed (Ciplea 2020).

Possible side effects are rare and generally not serious (gastrointestinal and leukopenia), without presenting immunosuppressive effects or a higher frequency of infections (AEMPS 2015, EMA 2017).

Various medical societies and/or expert consensus consider the use of this medication during breastfeeding possibly safe (Hale, Alroughani 2016, Briggs 2015), although others differ (Langer 2019).

Exposure can be minimized by 90% by waiting 3 hours to breastfeed again after taking the drug.

Until more published data is known about this drug in relation to breastfeeding, known safer alternatives may be preferable (Langer 2019, Cree 2013), especially during the neonatal period and in the case of prematurity.

Given the strong evidence that exists on the benefits of breastfeeding for the development of babies and the health of mothers, it is convenient to evaluate the risk-benefit of any maternal treatment, including chemotherapy, individually advising each mother who wishes to continue with breastfeeding (Koren 2013).

See below the information of this related product:


  • Glatiramer Acetate (Possibly safe. Probably compatible. Mild risk possible. Follow up recommended. Read the Comment.)
  • Human Immune globulin ( Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.)
  • Interferon Beta (IFN-β) ( Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.)
  • Natalizumab ( Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.)
  • Peginterferon beta-1a ( Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.)
  • Rituximab ( Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.)

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it. The pharmaceutical industry contraindicates breastfeeding, mistakenly and without scientific reasons, in most of the drug data sheets.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Fumaric Acid is also known as Dimethyl Fumarate. Here it is a list of alternative known names::

Fumaric Acid in other languages or writings:


Fumaric Acid belongs to these groups or families:


Main tradenames from several countries containing Fumaric Acid in its composition:


Variable Value Unit
Molecular weight 144 daltons
Protein Binding 27 - 40 %
VD 0.7 - 1.2 l/Kg
Tmax 2 - 3 hours
0.75 - 1 hours
Theoretical Dose 0.0004 - 0.001 mg/Kg/d
Relative Dose 0.005 - 0.01 %


  1. Ciplea AI, Datta P, Rewers-Felkins K, Baker T, Gold R, Hale TW, Hellwig K. Dimethyl fumarate transfer into human milk. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2020 Oct 31;13:1756286420968414. Abstract Full text (link to original source)
  2. Langer-Gould AM. Pregnancy and Family Planning in Multiple Sclerosis. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2019 Jun;25(3):773-792. Abstract
  3. Brown SM, Aljefri KA, Waas R, Hampton PJ. Systemic medications used in treatment of common dermatological conditions: Safety profile with respect to pregnancy, breast feeding and content in seminal fluid. J Dermatolog Treat. 2017 Abstract
  4. EMA. Dimetilfumarato. Ficha técnica. 2017 Full text (in our servers)
  5. EMA. Dimethyl fumarate. Drug Summary. 2017 Full text (in our servers)
  6. Almas S, Vance J, Baker T, Hale T. Management of Multiple Sclerosis in the Breastfeeding Mother. Mult Scler Int. 2016;2016:6527458. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  7. Alroughani R, Altintas A, Al Jumah M, Sahraian M, Alsharoqi I, AlTahan A, Daif A, Dahdaleh M, Deleu D, Fernandez O, Grigoriadis N, Inshasi J, Karabudak R, Taha K, Totolyan N, Yamout BI, Zakaria M, Bohlega S. Pregnancy and the Use of Disease-Modifying Therapies in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Benefits versus Risks. Mult Scler Int. 2016 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. AEMPS. Informe de Posicionamiento Terapéutico de dimetilfumarato (Tecfidera®). V1/22042015. 2015 Full text (in our servers)
  9. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Towers CV, Forinash AB. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk. Wolters Kluwer Health. Tenth edition (acces on line) 2015
  10. AEMPS. Informe de Posicionamiento Terapéutico de dimetilfumarato (Tecfidera). 2015 Full text (in our servers)
  11. Koren G, Carey N, Gagnon R, Maxwell C, Nulman I, Senikas V; Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Cancer chemotherapy and pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2013 Mar;35(3):263-278. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  12. Cree BA. Update on reproductive safety of current and emerging disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2013 Jun;19(7):835-43. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  13. Rostami-Yazdi M, Clement B, Mrowietz U. Pharmacokinetics of anti-psoriatic fumaric acid esters in psoriasis patients. Arch Dermatol Res. 2010 Abstract
  14. Litjens NH, Burggraaf J, van Strijen E, van Gulpen C, Mattie H, Schoemaker RC, van Dissel JT, Thio HB, Nibbering PH. Pharmacokinetics of oral fumarates in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Abstract

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