Last update March 21, 2020

Emtricitabine (FTC)

Very Low Risk

Safe. Compatible. Minimal risk for breastfeeding and infant.

Nucleoside and nucleotide analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) (Ribera 2011).

It is excreted in breast milk in small quantities (Mugwanya 2016, Benaboud 2011), much lower (200 times less) than the dose used in newborns and infants (Mugwanya 2016). The dosage in infants older than 3 months is 6 mg/kg/day and half from birth to that age (Ribera 2011).

No problems have been observed in infants whose mothers were taking it, except for mild diarrhea in 4% of cases (Mugwanya 2016), so its use in breastfeeding mothers is considered safe for both HIV treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (Mugwanya 2017, Seidman 2017).

The WHO recommends the so-called B+ option (highly active antiretroviral therapy - HAART) for all pregnant or breastfeeding women diagnosed with HIV, irrespective of their clinical status and CD4 count, continuing during breastfeeding and without interruption for life. Breastfeeding should be exclusive for 6 months and continue for 12 to 24 months along with complementary feeding (WHO 2016).

The recommended HAART combination is:
- Tenofovir + Lamivudine (or Emtricitabine) + Efavirenz daily.
Alternative first-line regimens are:
- Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Efavirenz (o Nevirapine)
- Tenofovir + Lamivudine (o Emtricitabine) + Nevirapine
The infant, irrespective of the type of breastfeeding, should take Nevirapine or Zidovudine daily for 6 weeks (WHO 2016).

Most countries in the world have adopted these recommendations which date from 2013 (Nelson 2014).

Alternatives

We do not have alternatives for Emtricitabine (FTC) since it is relatively safe.

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Emtricitabine (FTC) in other languages or writings:

Group

Emtricitabine (FTC) belongs to this group or family:

Tradenames

Main tradenames from several countries containing Emtricitabine (FTC) in its composition:

  • Atripla™. Contains other elements than Emtricitabine (FTC) in its composition
  • Descovy™. Contains other elements than Emtricitabine (FTC) in its composition
  • Emtriva
  • Symtuza™. Contains other elements than Emtricitabine (FTC) in its composition
  • Tribuss™. Contains other elements than Emtricitabine (FTC) in its composition
  • Trivenz™. Contains other elements than Emtricitabine (FTC) in its composition
  • Truvada™. Contains other elements than Emtricitabine (FTC) in its composition

Pharmacokinetics

Variable Value Unit
Oral Bioavail. 75 - 93 %
Molecular weight 247 daltons
Protein Binding < 4 %
VD 1,4 l/Kg
pKa 2,65 -
Tmax 1 - 2 hours
T1/2 10 hours
Theoretical Dose < 0,1 mg/Kg/d
Relative Dose 0,5 - 2 %
Ped.Relat.Dose 0,5 - < 3,4 %

References

  1. Puthanakit T, Thepnarong N, Chaithongwongwatthana S, Anugulruengkitt S, Anunsittichai O, Theerawit T, Ubolyam S, Pancharoen C, Phanuphak P. Intensification of antiretroviral treatment with raltegravir for pregnant women living with HIV at high risk of vertical transmission. J Virus Erad. 2018 Apr 1;4(2):61-65. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  2. Seidman DL, Weber S, Cohan D. Offering pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention to pregnant and postpartum women: a clinical approach. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  3. Mugwanya KK, John-Stewart G, Baeten J. Safety of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis use in lactating HIV-uninfected women. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2017 Abstract
  4. Mugwanya KK, Hendrix CW, Mugo NR, Marzinke M, Katabira ET, Ngure K, Semiyaga NB, John-Stewart G, Muwonge TR, Muthuri G, Stergachis A, Celum CL, Baeten JM. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Use by Breastfeeding HIV-Uninfected Women: A Prospective Short-Term Study of Antiretroviral Excretion in Breast Milk and Infant Absorption. PLoS Med. 2016 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  5. WHO - World Health Organization Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach. Guideline. 2016 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  6. UNICEF. Updates on HIV and Infant Feeding: The Duration of Breastfeeding, and Support from Health Services to Improve Feeding Practices Among Mothers Living with HIV. Guideline. 2016 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  7. CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Updated Guidelines for Antiretroviral Postexposure Prophylaxis After Sexual, Injection Drug Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV— United States. nPEP Guidelines Update. 2016 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. Nelson LJ, Beusenberg M, Habiyambere V, Shaffer N, Vitoria MA, Montero RG, Easterbrook PJ, Doherty MC. Adoption of national recommendations related to use of antiretroviral therapy before and shortly following the launch of the 2013 WHO consolidated guidelines. AIDS. 2014 Abstract
  9. WHO. Guidelines on post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV and the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among adults, adolescents and children: recommendations for a public health approach. Guideline. 2014 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  10. Hirnschall G, Harries AD, Easterbrook PJ, Doherty MC, Ball A. The next generation of the World Health Organization's global antiretroviral guidance. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  11. Ribera E, Tuset M, Martín M, del Cacho E. Características de los fármacos antirretrovirales. [Characteristics of antiretroviral drugs]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2011 May;29(5):362-91. Abstract
  12. Benaboud S, Pruvost A, Coffie PA, Ekouévi DK, Urien S, Arrivé E, Blanche S, Théodoro F, Avit D, Dabis F, Tréluyer JM, Hirt D. Concentrations of tenofovir and emtricitabine in breast milk of HIV-1-infected women in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, in the ANRS 12109 TEmAA Study, Step 2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)

Total visits

2,690

Help us improve this entry

How to cite this entry

Do you need more information or did not found what you were looking for?

   Write us at elactancia.org@gmail.com

e-lactancia is a resource recommended by IHAN of Spain

Would you like to recommend the use of e-lactancia? Write to us at corporate mail of APILAM