Last update July 3, 2022

Alcohol (alcoholic beverage)

High Risk

Poorly safe. Evaluate carefully. Use safer alternative or interrupt breastfeeding 3 to 7 T ½ (elimination half-lives). Read the Comment.

While breastfeeding it is recommended to avoid use of alcohol. It is unknown what level of maternal alcohol consumption is zero risk or safe for the infant. (Han 2022, Ministerio Sanidad 2020 pag44, ABM 2015)

Alcohol is excreted in breast milk. (Schneider 2013, Chien 2009 and 2005, Pepino 2007, Palmquist 2005, Koren 2002, da-Silva 1993, Argote 1992, Mennella 1991, Lawton 1985)

Alcohol consumption may cause sedation, failure to thrive, psychomotor delay and decreased cognitive and academic performance (Gibson 2021, Sachs 2013, Backstrand 2004, Koren 2002, Moretti 2000, Little 1989), although the data are inconsistent and scant (Giglia 2006, Koletzko 2000) and may depend on the amount and chronicity of alcohol consumption. (Han 2022, Gibson 2020 y 2018, Wilson 2017, ABM 2015, Haastrup 2014, Little 2002)

Excessive acute ingestion by the mother may induce coma, seizures and danger of death in the infant. (Swiderski 2011).

One case of Pseudo-Cushing Syndrome was reported that disappeared after alcohol stop by the mother. (Moretti 2000) 

Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with delayed Lactogenesis II, onset of copious milk. (Rocha 2020).

It is controversial that alcohol consumption is associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding (Mgongo 2013, Rebhan 2009, Giglia 2008). Despite of low increase of Prolactin serum level (Sarkola 1999), acute consumption affects the infant with sedation, and, inhibits Oxytocin secretion in the mother (Cobo 1973, Coiro 1992, Chien 2009) and hence affects the ejection reflex of breast milk with a decrease of 10% to 25% of milk production. (Mennella 2005-2001-1998-1997-1993-1991)

Although prenatal alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no association of these two disorders with alcohol consumption during lactation has been demonstrated. (Gibson 2022)

Drinking beer does not increase milk production (Comité LM AEP 2012, Mennella 2001-1993). After drinking 0.0% or non-alcoholic (<1%) beer, alcohol levels in breast milk are negligible or undetectable. (Schneider 2013)

Elapsing time required to resume breastfeeding after occasional consumption of alcohol by the mother in order to ensure disappearance of milk and blood (Ho 2001) depends on mother's body weight (lesser weight needs longer time to wait), and, on the amount ingested (higher amount needs longer time). Stop breastfeeding for longer than two and a half hour for every 10 - 12 g of ingested alcohol: 330 mL of 5% beer, 140 mL (1 glass) of 11-12% wine, or, one cup (40 ml) of 40% liquor. Twice these amounts would mean a wait of 5 hours and triple 7.5 hours, etc. (Han 2022, ABM 2015, Giglia 2006, Table 1 in Koren 2002

Some medicinal products containing high concentrations of alcohol as an excipient should be avoided during breastfeeding. (Nice 2000)

Avoiding bed-sharing is recommended to mothers who have drunk alcohol. (ABM 2020 &2008, UNICEF 2019, 2017, 2014 & 2013, Landa 2012, UNICEF 2006)

Drinking alcohol does not protect against COVID 19. (WHO 2020)

When topically used as disinfectant, alcohol does not increase alcohol levels in breast milk and is compatible with breastfeeding. (Han 2022, WHO 2002)


See below the information of this related product:

Suggestions made at e-lactancia are done by APILAM team of health professionals, and are based on updated scientific publications. It is not intended to replace the relationship you have with your doctor but to compound it. The pharmaceutical industry contraindicates breastfeeding, mistakenly and without scientific reasons, in most of the drug data sheets.

Jose Maria Paricio, Founder & President of APILAM/e-Lactancia

Your contribution is essential for this service to continue to exist. We need the generosity of people like you who believe in the benefits of breastfeeding.

Thank you for helping to protect and promote breastfeeding.

José María Paricio, founder of e-lactancia.

Other names

Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) is also known as


Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) in other languages or writings:

Group

Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) belongs to this group or family:

Tradenames

Main tradenames from several countries containing Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) in its composition:

  • Agua del Carmen™. Contains other elements than Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) in its composition
  • Coricidin (Indonesia)™. Contains other elements than Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) in its composition
  • Denubil™. Contains other elements than Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) in its composition
  • ExpectoDHU™. Contains other elements than Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) in its composition
  • Ginevítex™. Contains other elements than Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) in its composition
  • Logicin Rapid Relief (Singapore)™. Contains other elements than Alcohol (alcoholic beverage) in its composition

Pharmacokinetics

Variable Value Unit
Oral Bioavail. 74 - 100 %
Molecular weight 46 daltons
Protein Binding 0 %
VD 0.5 l/Kg
Tmax 0.5 - 1.5 hours
0.3 hours
M/P ratio 1 - 1.4 -
Theoretical Dose 1.6 - 36 mg/Kg/d
Relative Dose 0.5 - 16 %

References

  1. Han AA, Buerger AN, Allen H, Vincent M, Thornton SA, Unice KM, Maier A, Quiñones-Rivera A. Assessment of ethanol exposure from hand sanitizer use and potential for developmental toxicity in nursing infants. J Appl Toxicol. 2022 Jan 6. Consulted on April 21, 2022 Abstract
  2. Gibson L, Porter M. Alcohol and Tobacco use While Breastfeeding and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2022 Mar;52(3):1223-1234. Consulted on March 21, 2022 Abstract
  3. WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: Mythbusters. 2020.06.16 Consulted on June 20, 2020 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  4. OMS. Consejos para la población acerca de los rumores sobre el nuevo coronavirus (2019-nCoV). 2020.06.16 Consulted on June 20, 2020 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  5. Gibson L, Porter M. Maternal drinking and smoking. Can it explain the exceptional academic performance of LBOTE children? A preliminary analysis. BMC Res Notes. 2021 Apr 16;14(1):141. Abstract
  6. Ministerio de Sanidad. Límites de Consumo de Bajo Riesgo de Alcohol. Actualización del riesgo relacionado con los niveles de consumo de alcohol, el patrón de consumo y el tipo de bebida. Informes, estudios e investigación. Madrid; 2020 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  7. (ABM): Blair PS, Ball HL, McKenna JJ, Feldman-Winter L, Marinelli KA, Bartick MC; Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine.. Bedsharing and Breastfeeding: The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol #6, Revision 2019. Breastfeed Med. 2020 Jan;15(1):5-16. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  8. Gibson L, Porter M. Drinking or Smoking While Breastfeeding and Later Academic Outcomes in Children. Nutrients. 2020 Mar 20;12(3). pii: E829. Abstract
  9. Rocha BO, Machado MP, Bastos LL, Barbosa Silva L, Santos AP, Santos LC, Ferrarez Bouzada MC. Risk Factors for Delayed Onset of Lactogenesis II Among Primiparous Mothers from a Brazilian Baby-Friendly Hospital. J Hum Lact. 2020 Feb;36(1):146-156. Abstract
  10. Gibson L, Porter M. Drinking or Smoking While Breastfeeding and Later Cognition in Children. Pediatrics. 2018 Aug;142(2). pii: e20174266. Abstract
  11. Kelly Bonyata, IBCLC Breastfeeding and Alcohol KellyMom.com 2018 Full text (link to original source)
  12. UNICEF UK. Caring for your baby at night. A guide for parents. 2018 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  13. UNICEF. Ball H, Blair PS. (For UNICEF UK). Caring for your baby at night. Health professional´s guide. 2017 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  14. Wilson J, Tay RY, McCormack C, Allsop S, Najman J, Burns L, Olsson CA, Elliott E, Jacobs S, Mattick RP, Hutchinson D. Alcohol consumption by breastfeeding mothers: Frequency, correlates and infant outcomes. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2017 Sep;36(5):667-676. Abstract
  15. ABM. Reece-Stremtan S, Marinelli KA. ABM Clinical Protocol #21: Guidelines for Breastfeeding and Substance Use or Substance Use Disorder, Revised 2015. Breastfeed Med. 2015 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  16. ABM Protocolo clínico de la ABM n.º 21: Pautas para la lactancia y el consumo de sustancias o trastorno por consumo de sustancias, revisado en 2015. Breastfeed Med. 2015 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  17. Magnus MC, DeRoo LA, Håberg SE, Magnus P, Nafstad P, Nystad W, London SJ. Prospective study of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy or lactation and risk of childhood asthma: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Abstract
  18. UNICEF UK. Statement on co-sleeping following publication of new NICE postnatal guidance. Infosheet. 2014 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  19. Haastrup MB, Pottegård A, Damkier P. Alcohol and breastfeeding. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  20. Schneider C, Thierauf A, Kempf J, Auwärter V. Ethanol concentration in breastmilk after the consumption of non-alcoholic beer. Breastfeed Med. 2013 Abstract
  21. Rowe H, Baker T, Hale TW. Maternal medication, drug use, and breastfeeding. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013 Feb;60(1):275-94. Abstract
  22. Mgongo M, Mosha MV, Uriyo JG, Msuya SE, Stray-Pedersen B. Prevalence and predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania: a population based cross-sectional study. Int Breastfeed J. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  23. Nascimento AL, de Souza AF, de Amorim AC, Leitão MB, Maio R, Burgos MG. Alcohol intake in lactating women assisted in a University Hospital. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2013 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  24. UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative statement on Bed-sharing when parents do not smoke: is there a risk of SIDS? An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies. None 2013 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  25. Sachs HC; Committee On Drugs. The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: an update on selected topics. Pediatrics. 2013 Sep;132(3):e796-809. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  26. D'Apolito K. Breastfeeding and substance abuse. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Mar;56(1):202-11. Abstract
  27. Codoñer-Franch P, Hernández-Aguilar MT, Navarro-Ruiz A, López-Jaén AB, Borja-Herrero C, Valls-Bellés V. Diet supplementation during early lactation with non-alcoholic beer increases the antioxidant properties of breastmilk and decreases the oxidative damage in breastfeeding mothers. Breastfeed Med. 2013 Abstract
  28. CLM - Comité de Lactancia Materna de la AEP. Preguntas frecuentes sobre lactancia materna. Folleto. 2012 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  29. L.Landa Rivera, M.Díaz-Gómez, A.Gómez Papi, J.M.Paricio Talayero, C.Pallás Alonso, M.T.Hernández Aguilar, J.Aguayo Maldonado, J.M.Arena Ansotegui, S.Ares Segura, A.Jiménez Moya, J.J.Lasarte Velillas, J.Martín Calama, M.D.Romero Escós. El colecho favorece la práctica de la lactancia materna y no aumenta el riesgo de muerte súbita del lactante. Dormir con los padres. Rev Pediatr Aten Primaria. 14:53-60 2012 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  30. Swiderski P, Zaba C, Tezyk A, Wachowiak R. [Problem of exposure to direct danger of death or grave detriment to health of a child breast-fed by an alcohol-abusing mother in medico-legal opinions]. Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol. 2011 Abstract
  31. Maloney E, Hutchinson D, Burns L, Mattick RP, Black E. Prevalence and predictors of alcohol use in pregnancy and breastfeeding among Australian women. Birth. 2011 Abstract
  32. Mennella JA, Pepino MY. Breastfeeding and prolactin levels in lactating women with a family history of alcoholism. Pediatrics. 2010 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  33. Chien YC, Huang YJ, Hsu CS, Chao JC, Liu JF. Maternal lactation characteristics after consumption of an alcoholic soup during the postpartum 'doing-the-month' ritual. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  34. Rebhan B, Kohlhuber M, Schwegler U, Koletzko B, Fromme H. [Smoking, alcohol and caffeine consumption of mothers before, during and after pregnancy--results of the study 'breast-feeding habits in Bavaria']. Gesundheitswesen. 2009 Abstract
  35. Giglia RC, Binns CW, Alfonso HS, Scott JA, Oddy WH. The effect of alcohol intake on breastfeeding duration in Australian women. Acta Paediatr. 2008 Abstract
  36. ABM - Comité de protocolos de la Academia médica de lactancia materna (Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine). Protocolo Clínico de la ABM #6: Lineamientos sobre la práctica de dormir al bebé junto con la madre y la lactancia materna Revisión, marzo de 2008. Breastfeeding Medicine 2008 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  37. Giglia RC, Binns CW. Alcohol, pregnancy and breastfeeding; a comparison of the 1995 and 2001 National Health Survey data. Breastfeed Rev. 2008 Abstract
  38. ABM - The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. ABM Clinical Protocol #6: Guideline on Co-Sleeping and Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding Medicine 2008 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  39. Pepino MY, Steinmeyer AL, Mennella JA. Lactational state modifies alcohol pharmacokinetics in women. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  40. Giglia RC, Binns CW. Alcohol and breastfeeding: what do Australian mothers know? Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  41. UNICEF UK. Compartiendo la cama con tu bebé. Guía para madres que amamantan. Folleto 2006 Full text (in our servers)
  42. Giglia R, Binns C. Alcohol and lactation: A systematic review. Nutrition & Dietetics. 2006 Full text (link to original source)
  43. Wiersma T, Flikweert S, Zeeman K, Schagen van Leeuwen JH. [Use of alcohol during conception, pregnancy and lactation]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005 Abstract
  44. Mennella JA, Pepino MY, Teff KL. Acute alcohol consumption disrupts the hormonal milieu of lactating women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  45. Chien YC, Liu JF, Huang YJ, Hsu CS, Chao JC. Alcohol levels in Chinese lactating mothers after consumption of alcoholic diet during postpartum "doing-the-month" ritual. Alcohol. 2005 Abstract
  46. Palmquist M, Grainger D, Frazier L, Topolinski A, Studts P, Nipper H. Elimination of alcohol from breast milk: Establishing guidelines for resumption of breast-feeding after alcohol consumption. Fertil Steril. 2005;84 Suppl. 1:S415. Poster 717. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  47. de Araújo Burgos MG, Bion FM, Campos F. [Lactation and alcohol: clinical and nutritional effects]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2004 Abstract
  48. Pepino MY, Mennella JA. Advice given to women in Argentina about breast-feeding and the use of alcohol. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2004 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  49. Backstrand JR, Goodman AH, Allen LH, Pelto GH. Pulque intake during pregnancy and lactation in rural Mexico: alcohol and child growth from 1 to 57 months. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  50. WHO / UNICEF. BREASTFEEDING AND MATERNAL MEDICATION Recommendations for Drugs in the Eleventh WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (WHO/UNICEF) 2002 Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  51. Little RE, Northstone K, Golding J; ALSPAC Study Team. Alcohol, breastfeeding, and development at 18 months. Pediatrics. 2002 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  52. Koren G. Drinking alcohol while breastfeeding. Will it harm my baby? \ (ALGORITHM TO ESTIMATE HOW LONG IT TAKES TO ELIMINATE ALCOHOL FROM BREAST MILK). Can Fam Physician. 2002 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  53. Mennella JA, Garcia-Gomez PL. Sleep disturbances after acute exposure to alcohol in mothers' milk. Alcohol. 2001 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  54. Ho E, Collantes A, Kapur BM, Moretti M, Koren G. Alcohol and breast feeding: calculation of time to zero level in milk. Biol Neonate. 2001 Abstract
  55. Mennella J. Alcohol's effect on lactation. Alcohol Res Health. 2001 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  56. Mennella JA. Regulation of milk intake after exposure to alcohol in mothers' milk. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  57. Moretti ME, Lee A, Ito S. Which drugs are contraindicated during breastfeeding? Practice guidelines. Can Fam Physician. 2000 Sep;46:1753-7. Review. Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  58. Nice FJ, Snyder JL, Kotansky BC. Breastfeeding and over-the-counter medications. J Hum Lact. 2000 Nov;16(4):319-31. Review. Erratum in: J Hum Lact 2001 Feb;17(1):90. Abstract
  59. Koletzko B, Lehner F. Beer and breastfeeding. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000 Abstract
  60. Sarkola T, Mäkisalo H, Fukunaga T, Eriksson CJ. Acute effect of alcohol on estradiol, estrone, progesterone, prolactin, cortisol, and luteinizing hormone in premenopausal women. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1999 Abstract
  61. Mennella JA. Short-term effects of maternal alcohol consumption on lactational performance. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998 Abstract
  62. Mennella JA. Infants' suckling responses to the flavor of alcohol in mothers' milk. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997 Abstract
  63. da-Silva VA, Malheiros LR, Moraes-Santos AR, Barzano MA, McLean AE. Ethanol pharmacokinetics in lactating women. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1993 Oct;26(10):1097-103. Abstract
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  65. Mennella JA, Beauchamp GK. Beer, breast feeding, and folklore. Dev Psychobiol. 1993 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  66. Flores-Huerta S, Hernández-Montes H, Argote RM, Villalpando S. Effects of ethanol consumption during pregnancy and lactation on the outcome and postnatal growth of the offspring. Ann Nutr Metab. 1992 Abstract
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  68. Coiro V, Alboni A, Gramellini D, Cigarini C, Bianconi L, Pignatti D, Volpi R, Chiodera P. Inhibition by ethanol of the oxytocin response to breast stimulation in normal women and the role of endogenous opioids. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1992 Abstract
  69. Mennella JA, Beauchamp GK. The transfer of alcohol to human milk. Effects on flavor and the infant's behavior. N Engl J Med. 1991 Abstract Full text (link to original source) Full text (in our servers)
  70. Little RE, Anderson KW, Ervin CH, Worthington-Roberts B, Clarren SK. Maternal alcohol use during breast-feeding and infant mental and motor development at one year. N Engl J Med. 1989 Abstract
  71. Lawton ME. Alcohol in breast milk. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1985 Abstract
  72. Binkiewicz A, Robinson MJ, Senior B. Pseudo-Cushing syndrome caused by alcohol in breast milk. J Pediatr. 1978 Abstract
  73. Cobo E. Effect of different doses of ethanol on the milk-ejecting reflex in lactating women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973 Abstract

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